پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع reading، School، Students، MESTA

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پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع reading، one، EI، question

findings, the analysis of the above graphs in relation to the gathered correlations of them with RC test is as follows:
To clarify the graphs of the frequencies, first of all, the researcher points out to the numbers of the items included in each of the 5 main categories of Bar-on `s EI test. To do that, knowing the sub categories of each main category is necessary:
The first main category is Intra- Personal which consists of:
a) Self-regard, b) emotional self awareness, c) assertiveness, d) independence, e) self- actualization
The second one is Inter- Personal which consists of:
a) Empathy, b) social responsibility, c) inter- personal relationship
The third one is Stress- Management that includes:
a) Stress tolerance, b) impulse control
The forth one is Adaptability that includes:
a) Reality testing, b) flexibility, c) problem solving
And the last category is General Mood which consists of:
a) Optimism, b) happiness
The results of correlation coefficient between these main groups and reading comprehension, as well as frequency graphs, depict the third group (Stress Management) with (r= 0.39) has the most relationship with RC of the participants; Observation of the frequency graphs makes this matter clearer.
Here, the numbers of the questions of EI test related to this category and its sub-categorizations and their correlations which are calculated separately with RC are presented as:
4(r=0.06), 11(r=0.03), 19(r=0.11), 26(r=0.11), 34(r=0.17), 41(r=0.15), 49(r=0.18), 56(r=0.20), 64(r=0.33), 69(r=0.05), 71(r=0.23), 76(r=0.30), 79(r=0.03).

Other main categories and their related questions are mentioned bellow respectively based on the amount of their correlation with RC:
General Mood with (r=0.27):
2(r=0.16), 9(r=0.15), 10(r=0.30), 17(r=0.19), 24(r=0.20), 39(r=0.09), 47(r=0.23), 54(r=0.07), 62(r=0.27), 77(r= -0.02), 84(0.01).

Intra- Personal with (r=0.19):
3(r=0.06), 5(r=0.00), 6(r= -0.09), 15(r= -0.14), 18(r=0.06), 20(r=0.29), 21(r=0.05), 25(r=0.22), 30(r=0.10), 33(r=0.18), 35(r=0.15), 40(r= -0.10), 45(r=0.11), 48(r=0.10), 50(r=0.06), 51(r=0.10), 55(r=0.14), 60(r=0.06), 63(r=0.02), 65(r= -0.06), 66(r=0.21), 70(r=0.04), 72(r=0.17), 75(r=0.15), 78(r=0.07), 80(r=0.16),82(r=0.02), 85(r=0.08), 90(r= -0.08).

Adaptability with (r=0.19):
1(r= -0.11), 7(r=0.20), 12(r=0.20), 16(r= -0.02), 22(r= -0.07), 27(r= -0.15), 31(r=0.18), 36(r= -0.01), 37(r=0.02), 42(r=0.03), 46(r=0.18), 52(r=0.16), 57(r=0.27), 61(r=0.14), 67(r=0.04), 76(r=0.30), 81(r=0.01), 87(r=0.06).

Inter- Personal with (r=0.15):
8(r=0.14), 13(r=0.14), 14(r=0.07), 23(r= -0.04), 28(r=0.09), 29(r=0.02), 32(r=0.08), 38(r=0.13), 43(r=0.05), 44(r=0.06), 53(r=0.23), 58(r=0.03), 59(r=0.12), 68(0.15), 73(0.06), 74(0.01), 83(r=0.02), 88(r= -0.07), 89(r= -0.03).

Regarding the present results, it is understandable that participants` feeling of stress tolerance and impulse control which are sub categories of the third group, are the most related and effective factors on their sense of comprehension, and empathy, social-responsibility and inter-personal relationship which relate to the second main category of Bar-on`s EI, are the least related ones.

4.4 Discussion
The results of the study besides the review of the findings and the related studies in this area are available to be discussed in this part.
Based on the obtained results according to the statistical analyses, it is found that reading comprehension is influenced by emotional intelligence but not to the extent that was expected. The results indicated a positive but weak relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension (r=0.29). Therefore, the findings represent a contradiction between the final conclusion of this study and other studies. Helen C. Bryant (March 2007), indicated a strong relationship between emotional intelligence (EQ total score) and reading comprehension (r=0.90). Pishghadam (2009), found no significant correlations between EI and reading (r=.06). Motallebzadeh (Fall 2009), found the correlation of these two variables as (r= .54), Abdolrezapour and Tavakoli (Mar 2011), suggested that high EI is related to more reading achievement (r=0.66). They believed that subjects’ EI positively correlates with their achievement in reading comprehension. Talebinejad and Rezai Fard (September 2012), also concluded a high correlation between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension (r=0.79).

Chapter five

Summary,
Conclusions,
Implications &
Suggestions

5.1 Introduction
In this chapter, first of all a brief summary of the study is presented which contains the objectives, methodology and data analysis. Secondly, the obtained results of the study is reviewed and discussed. Then the assessment of the study is investigated, and finally, the implications for further research are given.

5.2 Summary of the study
The goal of the present study was to identify whether there was any relationship between students` emotional intelligence and their abilities in comprehending a reading text or not.
The study was performed with 60 junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. The participants were of unequal proportion of male and female who were classmates. In order to gather the data, gender and age of the participants had no roles in this study. Two kinds of instruments were used to collect the data. The first one was the short form of Bar-on `s EQ-i questionnaire (1996) included 90 questions. The second one was a reading comprehension test consisted of 30 questions (Longman, Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test) (Phillips, 2003).
In order to answer the research question, first of all the minimum, maximum, mean, and standard deviation of the obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Then Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to investigate the relationship between the two variables- EI test scores and RC test scores- in general, and then all the items of EI separately with RC.
5.3 Conclusion
In the conclusion part the summarized outcome of the study based on the research question is presented.
In order to find an answer for the research question dealing with investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension, Pearson product correlation was conducted and it statistically revealed that there is a weak relationship between these two variables ( r=0.29), based on the gathered results. The findings indicate that those participants with more stress tolerance and impulse control abilities, answered the reading comprehension test better than others (r=0.39). It means that stress management is the most effective factor on comprehension than other categories of EI. But, feeling of empathy, social responsibility, and inter-personal relationship have the least effect on comprehension (r=0.15). So, it is concluded that inter- personal factor which is the exchange of information, feelings, and meaning among people through verbal and non-verbal messages is not as much effective as the stress management is.
To clarify the amount of the relation between the two variables, EI & RC, the researcher calculated the correlation between all the EI items and RC separately. The bellow results represent only the highest related scores to RC and the lowest related ones in each classification:
In the first category, Intra-Personal with its 5 sub-categories and (r=0.19) in general, the highest correlation with RC relates to the question number 20(r=0.29) which relates to self-actualization, and the lowest one to question number 15(r= -0.14) whi
ch
relates to assertiveness.
In the second category, Inter- Personal with its 3 sub-categories and (r=0.15), question number 53(r=0.23) which relates to inter-personal relationship is the highest correlated factor with RC and question 88(r= -0.07) is the lowest correlated one which deals with social responsibility.
In the third category, Stress Management with its 2 sub-categories and (r= 0.39), question number 64(r=0.33) that relates to stress tolerance is the highest correlated item with RC and question 11(r=0.03) is the lowest related one which deals with impulse control.
In the forth category, Adaptability with its 3 sub-categories and (r=0.19), the most correlated item with RC is question number 76(r=0.30) that relates to problem solving, and the least correlated one is question number 27(r= -0.15) that deals with flexibility.
In the fifth and the last category, General Mood with its 2 sub-categories and (r=0.27), question 62(r=0.27) which relates to happiness is the highest related factor to RC and question number 77(r= -0.02) that also relates to happiness is the lowest correlated one. As the EI test is presented in (Appendix A), in this case, these two questions are representative of two different positive and negative areas according to the meaning of their questions.
Based on the obtained results in general, it is expected that improving the factors of EI with positive meanings which have the highest degree of correlation with reading comprehension can be effective in increasing the participants `abilities of comprehending a text and those with negative meanings and negative correlations, must be reduced if tolerable reading comprehension is expected. So, the achieved conclusion rejected the hypothesis of the study “There is not any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension”. The results indicated that there is a significant but weak relationship between EI & RC.

5.4 Pedagogical Implications
Learners of English as a foreign language should be more familiar with their personality, characteristics, abilities and whatever relates to their success. The findings of the present study might help researchers, learners, and teachers focus more on enhancing reading comprehension and emotional intelligence. So, it can have pedagogical implications for instruction and curriculum development. English instructors are expected to be well familiar with the concept of emotional intelligence as an effective factor of success, and try to raise their own emotional intelligence as well as that of their learners. Furthermore, being informed about the fact that the ability of comprehending a text is improvable make this matter clearer that familiarity with reading strategies is necessary besides knowing and increasing intelligence in the process of learning. The findings can also be helpful to students` awareness of their abilities and their power of learning. Finally, the upshots gained through the present study can help material and syllabus designers see which activities and approaches are the most appropriate ones for improving students` comprehension in relation to their EI.

5.5 Suggestions for further research
Interpretations of the findings of the present study lead to several recommendations for further research.
1. In order to get better results, this study can be carried out by using a bit larger sample.
2. More research is required regarding what factors improve emotional intelligence.
3. More research is needed to see among those factors that improve emotional intelligence, which one has the direct effect on reading comprehension, and how it can be improved.
4. It is necessary for all the learners to know what the reading strategies are and among them which one has the most effect on their comprehending of a text and which one is the most related to their EI.
5. Another area for future research is to investigate how much passing several courses of reading comprehension affect the abilities of learners to achieve high scores in reading comprehension tests.

References

Aarnoutse, C. & Schellings, G. (2003).

پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع reading، test، EI، Correlation

of Bandar Abbas. A co-relational research design was employed for this study. Test data were collected, analyzed, and interpreted. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was utilized to test the null hypothesis of this study. It was used to determine the strength of the relationship between the variables (Bluman, 1998, p. 474).

3.3 Participants
The participants in this study were 60 junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. The participants were of unequal proportion of male and female who were classmates. It is worth mentioning gender and age of them had no roles in this research.

3.4 Instruments
In this study two instruments were used in order to collect the data. The first one was the short form of Bar-on `s EQ-i questionnaire that included 90 questions. The second one was a reading comprehension test consisted of 4 passages and 30 questions (Longman, Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test) (Phillips, 2003).
The test of EI consisted of 90 likert-type items was used to investigate its effect on the comprehension abilities of the participants (Appendix I). The test of reading comprehension was designed to measure text comprehension abilities of junior students who passed several courses of reading comprehension in advanced (Appendix II).

3.4.1 Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory
Reuven Bar-on is a pioneer and internationally acknowledged expert in emotional intelligence. He has been involved in defining, measuring and applying this concept since 1980. He coined the term “EQ” and created the EQ-i, which is the first and the most popular measure of emotional intelligence to be published. EQ-i is based on over 19 years of research by Dr Reuven Bar-on. It has been tested over 100,000 individuals worldwide. As Rezaee (September, 2012) cited, “the short form of Bar-on`s EI questionnaire consists of 90 items of 5 choices (Likert scale)”, (see Appendix I). It measures 5 major scales and their 15 sub-scales as follows:
Intrapersonal: Self-Regard, Emotional Self Awareness, Assertiveness, Independence, and Self-Actualization.
Interpersonal: Empathy, Social Responsibility, and Interpersonal Relationship.
Stress Management: Stress Tolerance and Impulse Control.
Adaptability: Reality Testing, Flexibility, and Problem Solving.
General Mood Scale: Optimism and Happiness.
So, in order to avoid the haphazard answering of the participants, and also the ease of administration according to the time limitation, the short form of EQ-i in Farsi was used. As Rezaee (September, 2012) cited, ” there are many studies which used Bar-on EQ-i short form, (e.g. Khodaverdian, 2009, Kracher 2009, Mecabe, 2010, Mo & Dainy, 2007, Petersen, 2010, Riffle, 2010, Robitaille, 2007, Zupancic, 2011). The reliability of Bar-on EQ-i short form in Farsi was measured by Samouei et al, (2005) (r=0.93)”. The reliability of the questionnaire in this study is calculated as well, (r=0.90). (See table 3.1)

Table 3.1
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha
Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items
N of Items
.908
.909
90

3.4.2 Reading Comprehension Test
In order to investigate the level of reading understanding of the participants, a TOEFL reading comprehension test of Longman (Phillips, 2003) was used. It consisted of 4 passages with totally 30 questions, (Appendix II). The test is reliable by referring to the philosophy of TOEFL.

3.5 Data collection procedure
Before conducting the study, specific steps were necessary, including obtaining permission from the professor of the chosen class and also getting collaborative support from him.
To facilitate internal controls, all the participants were tested by one examiner, the researcher, in the same class, and on the same day. The allocated time for the administration of the Bar-On`s test consisted of 90 questions was 50 minutes and for the reading comprehension test with 4 passages and 30 questions 1 hour.
So, in an effort to keep anonymity with the participants, names were not used. After giving oral instructions for the tests and after having provided answers to the participants `questions, the tests were administered one after the other. Two tests were completed on Thursday. The participants were asked to answer the Emotional Intelligence test (EQ) first and then, after a short break they were asked to complete the reading comprehension test. After collecting the data, the researcher analyzed and interpreted the data.

3.6 Data analysis
For finding answer to the research question, the gathered results from the EQ-i test and the reading comprehension test were analyzed based on the Pearson correlation coefficient statistical analysis in order to indicate whether there is a relationship between variables (EI and RC).

Chapter four

Results and Discussion

4.1 Introduction
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. In this chapter, the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of the participants were estimated first generally and second separately by Pearson product correlation formula and then the results of the reading comprehension test of each participant was analyzed according to his/her grade in the Bar-on’s EI test in relation to its 5 main categorizations and its 15 sub-categorizations.

4.2 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics which include minimum and maximum scores, means, and standard deviation describe the data, data distribution, and data comparison with other similar data. The following parts are supposed to provide the descriptive statistics for the scores of the participants on the emotional intelligence test and reading comprehension test.

4.2.1 Descriptive statistics for the scores of emotional intelligence test
Table 4.1 shows descriptive statistics for the scores of the participants on the emotional intelligence test. The table represents some information about number of the participants, minimum and maximum scores, mean and standard deviation.

Table 4.1
Test
N
Min
Max
Mean
Std. Deviation
EI
60
260
388
325.07
29.818

As the table demonstrates, the minimum score is 260 and the maximum is 388 out of the total score of 450 and the standard deviation that shows the degree of dispersion of scores in a distribution is calculated as 29.81. As Dean Brown (2005) believes, standard deviation is a sort of average of the differences of all scores from the mean. By comparing the standard deviations of different groups we will understand to what extent they are homogenous. As it is shown in the table, standard deviation is small, so it means that the group is homogenous.

4.2.2 Descriptive statistics for the scores of reading comprehension test
Table 4.2 shows the descriptive statistics for the scores of participants on the reading comprehension test.
Table 4.2
Test
N
Min
Max
Mean
Std. Deviation
Reading comprehension
60
3
26
14.85
5.914

According to the data, minimum and maximum scores are 3 and 26, out of the total number of 30, respectively. The mean score is 14.85 and the standard deviation is 5.91.

4.3 Inferential Statistics
In order to answer the question of the present study, the researcher applied the following data analyses.

The research question
4.3.1 Is there any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehe
ns
ion?
To investigate whether there is any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension or not, Pearson correlation coefficient was applied.
First, the correlation between EI and reading comprehension (RC) tests scores was calculated generally (table 4.3).

Table 4.3
Correlations

EI test scores
RC test scores
EI test scores
Pearson Correlation
1
.295*

Sig. (1-tailed)

.011

N
60
60
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

As the result indicates, the correlation coefficient between the two sets of scores proves the presence of a significant relationship between them (r = 0.29). Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a statistically positive relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University, but it is not that much as the researcher expected.
Second, the correlation between all the questions of EI, one by one, with the total scores of RC was calculated in order to identify the most related sub-categories of EI with RC. Tables of these correlations are depicted in (Appendix III) and labeled 4.4, in general.
Third, the correlations between the 5 main categorizations of Bar-on`s EI questionnaire including 1) Intra-personal, 2) Inter-personal, 3) stress-management, 4) Adaptability, and 5) General mode, and reading comprehension are calculated. Tables 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, and 4.9 show these relations clearly.

Table 4.5
Correlations

RC scores
Intrapersonal
Intrapersonal
Pearson Correlation
.192
1

Sig. (1-tailed)
.071

N
60
60

Table 4.6
Correlations

RC scores
Interpersonal
Interpersonal
Pearson Correlation
.158
1

Sig. (1-tailed)
.114

N
60
60

Table 4.7

Correlations

RC scores
Stress management
Stress management
Pearson Correlation
.393**
1

Sig. (1-tailed)
.001

N
60
60
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

Table 4.8
Correlations

RC scores
Adaptability
Adaptability
Pearson Correlation
.197
1

Sig. (1-tailed)
.065

N
60
60

Table 4.9
Correlations

General Mood
RC scores
General Mood
Pearson Correlation
1
.277*

Sig. (1-tailed)

.016

N
60
60
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

Farhadi, Ja`farpur, and Birjandi (1994), said “coefficient of correlation demonstrates the strength of a relationship between two variables. The coefficient of correlation will always have a value between -1 and +1. A value of +1 means perfect positive correlation and corresponds to the situation where all the dots lie exactly on a straight line. A value of -1 means perfect negative correlation. A correlation is considered high when it is close to +1 or -1 and low when it is close to 0. If the correlation of linear correlation is zero, we say that there is no linear correlation” (page 70). Therefore, the tables are representative of correlation between the EI `s 5 main categories and reading comprehension. Intra-Personal has the correlation of (r=0 .19) with reading comprehension (RC), Inter-Personal (r=0.15), Stress-Management (r= 0.39), Adaptability (r= 0.19), and General Mood (r= 0.27). So, they have positive correlation with RC.

The following graph indicates a weak relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension. In this one and those of next pages, VAR00091 and VAR00092 are representative of the scores of EI and RC tests respectively.

Graph 4.1

As it is clear in the following graphs (4.2 &3), there is a big difference between the EI and RC `s mean scores.

Graph 4.2

Graph 4.3

And finally, the frequency graphs of the participants` answers to the 90 items of EI test are provided in (Appendix IV) and all the graphs are labeled as graphs 4.4 in general.
According to the

پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع reading، -the، an، text,

Emotional Intelligence
The following tables show a summary of the most widely used assessment tools of EI.

Assessment Tool
Description
EIQ (Dulewicz & Higgs)
Developed in 1999 at Henley Management College in the UK. The Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire offers both self-report and 360 questionnaires, with the latter enabling an all-round assessment of an individual’s performance from peers, colleagues and managers.
Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale
The MEIS is a test of ability rather than a self-report measure. The test-taker performs a series of tasks that are designed to assess the person’s ability to perceive, identify, understand, and work with emotion. There is very little for predictive validity in work situations.
MSCEIT® “Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test”
The only ability measure of EQ, the MSCEIT requires you to actually use your abilities in taking the test with questions where you look at faces, for example, and identify what emotions are present. It helps you understand the actual intelligence behind emotions: Perceiving, using, understanding, and managing feelings.
SEI™, Six Seconds Emotional Intelligence Test
Focused on self-development, the SEI is the only test based on Six Seconds’ EQ-in-action model: Know Yourself, Choose Yourself, and Give Yourself. The test measures 8 fundamental skills in these three areas. Report comes with over 20 pages of interpretation and development suggestions.
OVS, Organizational Vital Signs™ by Six Seconds
Organizational Vital Signs is an organizational climate assessment that gives a clear picture of how people are relating to each other and the workplace. Unlike the other tests, OVS is designed to assess a group or an organization to show the context in which individuals perform. The test measures six factors: Trust, Collaboration, Accountability, Leadership, Alignment, and Adaptability. These factors statistically predict over 50% of productivity + customer service + retention.
EQ Map® by Essi Systems
With a much broader perspective, the EQ Map helps people put emotional intelligence into a workplace context. The Map is self-scored, so you can do it completely on your own; it has questions along the lines of, “How well do you recognize emotions in people?” The 14 main scales include emotional awareness, emotional expression, resilience, outlook, trust, and personal power. It also has four outcome scales to show the benefit of increasing the first 14. The EQ Map includes an interpretation guide booklet.
EQ-i® by Reuven BarOn
This self-report instrument was designed to assess those personal qualities that enabled some people to possess better “emotional well-being” than others. The EQ-I has been used to assess thousands of individuals, and its reliability and validity is well documented. Less is known about its predictive validity in work situations
Emotional Intelligence Appraisal® by Talent Smart
There are 3 versions of this test. All use the Daniel Goleman 4-quadrant model: Self-awareness, Other-awareness, Self-management, Relationship-management. All take about 7 minutes to complete, and all come with 6 months of e-learning and a valuable goal-tracking reminder system.
ECI® (Emotional Competence Inventory) by Hay McBer
The ECI is a 360 degree appraisal tool where people who know the individual rate him or her on 20 competencies that are believed to be linked to emotional intelligence.
(http://www.psychometric-success.com/emotional-intelligence/measuring-emotional-intelligence.htm).

2.7 Reading comprehension
2.7.1 A Brief History of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension refers to the ability to understand individual words, phrases and clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and larger units of text (Vaughn et al., 2006). Reading comprehension is also described as the process of constructing meaning through dynamic interaction among the reader, the text, and the context of the reading situation (Pathways to the 21st Century Learning, 2001). In fact, reading was regarded as getting the main idea, identifying key details, making inferences, and interpreting meaning. The main purpose for reading is to comprehend the ideas within the material. Without comprehension, reading would be useless and meaningless. Recently reading comprehension has been redefined. It is now believed that reading comprehension is the act of constructing meaning from a text rather than merely pronouncing words on a page. As it is believed by Cook (1989) no two people will have exactly the same comprehension of a text and because no two individuals will most likely read under the same conditions, four conditions are thought to impact reading:
(a) What the reader brings to the reading situation,
(b) The characteristics of the written text,
(c) The learning context that defines the task and purpose of the reader,
(d) The strategies consciously applied by the reader to obtain meaning.
In order to be successful in reading and learning, students must be able to read with understanding and with comprehension. Adewole (2001) asserts that the aim of any reading program is to lay a strong foundation that can benefit pupils throughout their lives in academic pursuits. Adigun and Oyelude (2003) observe that skill in reading will not only assist pupils in organizing their thoughts and jotting down important facts while reading, but also equip them to comprehend entire texts. Reading is a crucial form of communication through which we get most of the information required in teaching and learning situations and in everyday life. We learn to read by reading, not through drill and practice, but by free volition, and in this way learners become readers (Krashen, 1993). Reading is the recognition of printed or written symbols, which has been described as a process of translating alphabetical symbols into a form of language from which the native speaker has already derived the meaning. According to Lawal (1996), readers use the symbols to guide the recovery of information from their repertoires and subsequently use this information to construct interpretations of the message. Adewole (2001) describes “critical reading skill,” which students need to read, explore, and appreciate a literary text effectively. The ability to read is a crucial skill for information retrieval (Dike, 2006). Oyetunde and Unoh (1986) list impediments to positive reading habits and attitude. These includes lack of materials, poor preparation of teachers, lack of interest, poor libraries or none at all, home background, and lack of adult readers as models. Ojo (1993) understood that the major causes of students’ poor performance in English and other school subjects is their inability to read effectively, which, in turn, is largely is due to the attitude of learners toward reading. Teachers must take responsibility for solving these problems, but Folaranmi (2007) believes that it is the government’s responsibility to involve teachers in working out effective ways of making the teaching profession viable for serving teachers and attracting to incoming ones, in order to address the problem of student poor reading culture. Adekoya and Arua (1997) believe that “many bilingual students fail to comprehend what they read in the school situation because they lack the vital firsthand experience necessary to widen their knowledge and general information of their culture which are not included in the school text.” Akinbade (2007) states that a good environment is necessary to promote effective learning in primary schools. Oyerokun (1993) emphasizes the need to use appropriate techniques and materials in teaching reading. She further states that in order to achieve this, the school, teacher, and parents should work together to ensure improvement in reading performance. Bond and Tinker (1973) also share the same view as Onibokun, maintaining that school, students, teachers, and par
en
ts should work to improve English language reading skill. However, it is believed that there is much more to it than that. Some say that reading comprehension requires readers to use a posteriori knowledge to navigate the text and create new knowledge, and that the more knowledge a person brings to his or her reading, the more he or she will understand the text (Brandao & Oakhill, 2005; Guterman, 2003). Others say that good reading comprehension requires an active reader, who can evaluate the text, preview the text, make predictions, make decisions during reading, review for deeper meaning, find inconsistencies, evaluates his or her own understanding while reading, use prior knowledge, and monitor understanding. Researchers have also broken these very important skills into processes that happen before, during and after reading (Aarnoutse & Schellings, 2003; de Jager et al., 2004; Houtveen & van de Grift, 2007). According to Houtveen and van de Grift (2007), good comprehenders do many things before even starting to read, including thinking about why they are reading the text, drawing upon previous knowledge, scanning the structural elements of the text, and making predictions about what the text will be like. During reading, they say, those whose comprehension is good continually check for understanding of what they are reading, and are flexible in dealing with changes in the material; they also can identify important ideas, and much more. After reading, they can reflect on their knowledge to successfully produce information when teachers check for understanding, and can use the knowledge gained from their reading for other activities. Educators want students to read information, make critical decisions about it, form their own opinions and respond intelligently (D’Archangelo, 2002). Therefore, a reading skill is a helpful tool that a student practices in order to improve reading comprehension (Hollas, 2002).
Houtveen and van de Grift (2007) also outline the teacher`s role in helping students become people with good comprehension. For better reading comprehension, there are some steps that teachers should take which include first describing reading strategies to students including what each strategy entails, when and how to use particular strategies, and then modeling the use of strategies in front of students. Next, students must be able to use the strategies together, followed by the instructor`s guidance. With this practice, students should eventually be able to use the strategies independently.
According to Van Etten and Van Etten (1976), “the components of reading comprehension include the following:
(a) Memory -the pupil recalls or recognizes information;
(b) Translation -the student changes information into a different symbol form or language;
(c) Interpretation -the pupil discovers relationships between facts, generalization, definitions, values, and skills;
(d) Application -the student solves lifelike problem requiring identification of the issue and the selection and use of appropriate generalizations and skills;
(e) Analysis -the student solves a problem through his conscious knowledge of the parts of the communication;
(f) Synthesis -the student solves a problem that requires original, creative thinking;
(g) Evaluation -the student makes a judgment of good or bad, or right or wrong, according to designated standards, “(p. 254).
“Students who read poorly often have several problems in addition to poor reading that stand in the way of their school achievement” (Gaskins, 1984, p. 467).
Vaughn et al. (2006, p. 132) suggest that “students who struggle to read may encounter difficulty in:
(a) Decoding words, including structural analysis;
(b) Reading text with adequate speed and accuracy (fluency);
(c) Understanding the meaning of words;
(d) Relating content to prior knowledge;
(e) Applying comprehension strategies;
( f) Monitoring

پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع an، emotions، one's، intelligence.

It is worth mentioning that emotional intelligence is the foundation for critical skills and can be increased by practice (2012 EmotionalIntelligence.net).

Weissinger (1998) proposes that emotional intelligence is derived from four basic elements that operate like the building blocks of DNA. These elements enable one to develop specific skills and abilities, which are the basis of emotional intelligence. In Salovey and Mayer’s earlier work (1990), emotional intelligence is defined according to the abilities involved in it. One of their first definitions of emotional intelligence was “the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 186). Salovey and Mayer maintain that this and other earlier definitions now seem vague in places and impoverished in the sense that they talk only about perceiving and regulating emotion, and omit thinking about feelings. As a result of this vagueness, Salovey and Sluyter (1997) provided a revision. The revision is as follows:
The ability to accurately perceive, appraise, and express emotion
b) The ability to access or generate feelings on demand when they facilitate understanding of one’s self or another person
c) The ability to understand emotions and the knowledge that derives from them
d) The ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth (p.10).

2.3 Models of Emotional Intelligence:
There are three main models of emotional intelligence:
2.3.1 Ability Model
Since the emergence of EI in 1990s, the concept of emotional intelligence has generated interest in both the popular media and scientific circle, leading to several definitions and two general competing models of EQ. In an initial theoretical paper, an ability model of emotional intelligence was introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990) and a two-part approach was used by them, speaking was the first of the general processing of emotional information and specifying the skills involved in such processing was the second. This model considers emotional intelligence as a pure form of mental ability with personality characteristics such as optimism and well-being (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999). The ability based model views emotions as useful information that helps a person to understand his social environment (Salovey & Grewal, 2005). According to Salovey and Mayer (1990) this ability based model consists of four parts: Emotional Perception and Expression, Use of Emotions, Emotional understanding, and Emotional Management.
By 1997 and 1999, Mayer and Salovey, together with Caruso, expanded on this ability-based definition while keeping its two-part form and defined emotional intelligence as (Mayer et al. 1999: 267): ” An ability to recognize the meaning of emotions and their relationships and to reason and problem-solve on the basis of them, the capacity to perceive emotions, assimilate emotion related feelings, and understand the information of those emotions and manage them”. After the modern field of emotional intelligence saw its first scientific publication in early 1990s, some other researchers including Goleman (1995) and Cooper (1996-1997) expanded the meaning of emotional intelligence by explicitly mixing the ability to understand and process emotion with other diverse parts of personality or skills; hence creating mixed approaches to emotional intelligence. Thus, emotional intelligence is said to be more like ‘character’.

2.3.2 Mixed Model
Goleman (2001) suggested a mixed model in terms of performance, integrating individuals’ abilities and personalities, and using their effects in work place. Goleman’s mixed model (1998) includes four constructs: Self-awareness, Self-management, Social awareness, and Relationship management. Goleman (1995), who commercially popularized the concept, identified five domains of EQ:
a) knowing one’s emotion, b) managing emotion, c) motivating oneself, d) recognizing emotions in others, and e) handling relationships. To him, a person with higher emotional intelligence should become happier, more optimistic, motivated and outgoing. In a rather similar manner, Cooper and Oriolio, who defined emotional intelligence as a mix of mental and non-mental abilities, divided emotional intelligence into five general attributes in a measure called EQ-Map, which has provided an approach to identify one’s strength and vulnerability and targeted specific actions to be taken (Cooper 1996/1997).
So, there are some differences between the ability and mixed approaches towards emotional intelligence. According to Mayer (2001), mixed approaches claim a stronger predictive power for success, but the ability model only offers potentiality. That is, being emotionally intelligent in the ability model does not mean that a learner will necessarily succeed in school. Also, having high EQ in the ability model appears relatively independent of most personality characteristics such as extroversion or optimism; EQ scores, as Ciarrochi et al. (2001) state, might correlate more with some traits and less with others. In spite of the differences, both the ability and mixed approaches of EQ share a similar intention: to understand how an individual perceives and regulates his or her emotions.

2.3. 3 Trait Model
Petrides and Furnham (2001) identified 15 components via content analysis of the existing models of emotional intelligence. These components according to Petrides, Furnham, & Fredrickson (2004) are as follows:
Adaptability, Assertiveness, Emotion Expression, Emotion management (others), Emotion perception (self and others), Emotion regulation, Impulsiveness (low), Relationship skills, Self-esteem, Selfmotivation, Social competence, Stress management, Trait empathy, Trait happiness, and Trait optimism.
Wolfradt, Felfe, Koster (2001-2002) in two studies revealed that emotional intelligence is mainly associated with personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, self-perceived creativity), life satisfaction and thinking styles with only a low relation to verbal intelligence. Furthermore, people higher in the emotional intelligence dimension, emotional efficacy, produced more creative performances than those lower in this domain.
Aristotle argued that intellect was reliable while emotion was too undependable to be of much use to rational thought (Bar-on & Parker 2000).

2.4 Basic Criteria
Gardner (1993) developed a set of criteria to determine what set of skills make up an intelligence. Here are listed the key points:
1. Potential isolation as a brain function / potential isolation by brain damage.
2. Existence of prodigies, savants, and other exceptional individuals.
3. An identifiable core operation or set of operations.
4. A distinctive developmental history, along with a definable set of expert ‘end state’ performances.
5. An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility.
6. Support from experimental psychological tasks.
7. Support from psychometric findings.
8. Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system.

2.5 Theoretical Considerations
The definitions of the terms Emotion and Intelligence and also 15 sub categories of Bar-on’s EI are presented below:

2.5.1 Emotion
Emotions are recognized as one of the three or four fundamental classes of mental operations. These classes include motivation, emotion, cognition, and (less frequently) consciousness (Bain, 1855/1977; Izard, 1993; MacLean, 1973; Mayer, 1995a, 1995b; Plutchik, 1984; Tomkins, 1962; see Hilgard, 1980; Mayer, Chabot, & Carlsmith, 1997, for reviews). As cited by John D. Mayer, Peter Salovey, David R. Caruso, and Lillia Cherkasskiy (2011), ” among the triad of motivation, emotion, and cognition, basic motivations arise in response to internal bodily states and include drives such as hu
ng
er, thirst, need for social contact, and sexual desires”. Motivations are responsible for directing the organism to carry out simple acts so as to satisfy survival and reproductive needs. In their basic form, motivations follow a relatively determined time course (e.g., thirst rises until quenched) and are typically satisfied in a specific fashion (e.g., thirst is satisfied by drinking fluids). Emotions form the second class of this triad. Emotions appear to have evolved across mammalian species so as to signal and respond to changes in relationships between the individual and the environment (including one’s imagined place within it). For example, anger arises in response to perceived threat or injustice; fear arises in response to perceived danger. Emotions respond to perceived changes in relationships. Moreover, each emotion organizes several basic behavioral responses to the relationship; for example, fear organizes freezing or fleeing. It seems that emotions are therefore more flexible than motivations, though not quite so flexible as cognition. Cognition, the third member of the triad, allows the organism to learn from the environment and to solve problems in novel situations. This is often in the service of satisfying motives or keeping emotions positive. Cognition includes learning, memory, and problem solving. It is ongoing, and involves flexible, intentional information processing based on learning and memory (see Mayer et al., 1997, for a review of these concepts). So, the term emotional intelligence, then, implies something having to do with the intersection of emotion and cognition.

2.5.2 Intelligence
Intelligence, has undergone different changes, from intelligence as a one-dimensional concept (Binet, 1905) to intelligence as a multiple concept (Gardner, 1983), and finally to intelligence as an emotional notion (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).
From the 1900s, when Alfred Binet, in response to a request by a French public school for a test that could identify children at risk of falling behind their peers in academic achievement, designed the first intelligence test and Lewis Terman (1916) coined the term “intelligence quotient” (IQ), the conceptions of intelligence have undergone different changes. The early designers of intelligence tests focused just on cognitive abilities such as memory and problem-solving. For instance, Binet equated intelligence with the abilities of logic and language. In fact, in the first half of the 20th century, IQ tests were considered enough measures of intelligence. Society linked IQ scores to an individual’s potential for success in life (Wechsler, 1958).
Wechsler believed that intelligence was “the ability of the person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” (as cited in Wallace et al., 1992, p. 105). Intelligence is the ability of an individual to adapt adequately to relatively new situations in life (Pinter, 1921). As Razmjoo (September 2008) cited, Gardner (1983, p.81) defines “intelligence as the ability to solve problems or to create fashion products that are valued within one or more cultural settings”. Ceci (1994) asserts that ” intelligence refers to multiple innate abilities, which serve as a range of possibilities. It is also postulated that these abilities develop or fail to develop, or develop and later regress, depending upon motivation and exposure to relevant educational experiences” (Gregory, 2000, pp. 139-149). Despite the diverse definitions of intelligence, experts are in agreement that intelligence is having the ability to learn from one’s experience and to adapt to one’s environment. It is worth mentioning that intelligence is often thought to be one of the most significant predictors of language learning success (GU, 2003).
A number of critics have challenged the relevance of psychometric intelligence in the concept of everyday life. They believe that IQ tests did not measure creativity, character, personality, or other

پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع reading، EI، To، In

understanding”.
Zambo and Brem (2004, p. 95) believe that ” children who have difficulty in reading may form negative self-schemas and come to believe that they are flawed, lazy, and inferior. In comparison, children who meet success in reading are more likely to be happy and recall positive experiences”.

2.8 Theories behind Reading Comprehension
In order to increase reading comprehension, understanding of the theories behind reading comprehension, as well as a working knowledge of some important strategies can be useful. Therefore, here we are going to focus on three important theories on reading comprehension: the Schema Theory; Mental Models, and the Preoperational Theory, and four categories of strategies to improve reading comprehension based on these theories: Preoperational, Organizational, Elaboration, and Monitoring.
Gunning (1996) identifies three main theories of reading comprehension. These theories are Schema Theory, Mental Models, and Proposition Theory.
2.8.1 Schema Theory
Gunning (1996) defines a schema as the organized knowledge that one already has about people, places, things, and events. Kitao (1990) says the schema theory involves an interaction between the reader’s own knowledge and the text, which results in comprehension. This schema, as Gunning defined, can be very broad, such a schema for natural disasters, or more narrow, such as a schema for a hurricane. Each schema is “filed” in an individual compartment and stored there. In order to comprehend reading materials, it is helpful for the students to relate this new information to the existing information they have compartmentalized in their minds, adding it to these “files” for future use. Based on the Schema Theory, depending on how extensive their “files” become, their degree of reading comprehension may vary.
2.8.2 Mental Model Theory
Another major theory we would like to talk about is the Mental Model. This model is thought to be a kind of mind movie created in one’s head, based on the reading content. Gunning gives a detailed description of this process, stating that a mental model is constructed most often when a student is reading fiction. The reader focuses on the main character and creates a mental model of the circumstances in which the character finds him or herself. The mental model is reconstructed or updated to reflect the new circumstances as the situation changes, but the items important to the main character are kept in the foreground according to Gunning, (1996).
Perkins (1991) identifies that sometimes misconceptions about important concepts reflect misleading mental models of the topic itself or the subject matter within which it sits. There are, however, interventions the teacher can do to help the reader to stay on track and create a more accurate picture. One suggestion is for the teachers to ask the students to disclose their mental models of the topics in question, through analogy, discussion, picturing, and other ways. This information can be useful, because it gives the teacher insight on the student’s knowledge gaps and misconceptions, therefore allowing them to help students reconstruct a more accurate picture.
2.8.3 Proposition Theory
The final explanation of comprehension we would like to discuss is the Propositional Theory. This theory involves the reader constructing a main idea or macrostructure as they process the text. These main ideas are organized in a hierarchical fashion with the most important things given the highest priority to be memorized (Gunning, 1996).

2.9 Strategies of improving reading comprehension based on the mentioned theories:
Katims (1997) stated that learning strategies are techniques, or routines that enable students to learn to solve problems and complete tasks independently. A strategy is an individual’s approach to a task. A reading strategy is a plan or way of doing something; a specific procedure one uses to perform a skill (Hollas, 2002). So, many students need guidance and strategies to help focus on reading and to do more than just read the words on a piece of paper. The skills of a strategic reader in the content areas can be broken down into seven areas (Hollas, 2002):
1. Predict – declaring in advance or foretelling on the basis of observation and/or experience.
2. Visualize – forming mental pictures of scenes, characters and events. Gunning (1996) identifies four main types of comprehension strategies, which include Preoperational, Organizational, Elaboration and Monitoring.
4. Question – to inquire or examine.
5. Clarify – to make understandable or to become clear and free of confusion.
6. Summarize – to concisely obtain the essence or main point of the text.
7. Evaluate – to form an opinion about what you have read.
As it is implied, these seven areas can be linked to various strategies to improve the effectiveness of each reader. The “predicting, visualizing and connecting” areas are implemented as before reading strategies. The “question and clarification” areas are implemented as during reading strategies whereas, “summarizing and evaluating” are implemented as after reading strategies. It is implied that the goal of the teacher is to help students to apply reading strategies to become effective readers.

2.10 Purposes of Reading Comprehension Strategies
Reading is one of the most important academic tasks faced by students. As cited in (www.ciil-ebooks.net), strategies designed to improve reading comprehension may have any number of purposes:
• To enhance understanding of the content information presented in a text
• To improve understanding of the organization of information in a text
• To improve attention and concentration while reading
• To make reading a more active process
• To increase personal involvement in the reading material
• To promote critical thinking and evaluation of reading material
• To enhance registration and recall of text information in memory

2.11 What is comprehension?
One of the earliest recorded studies of reading as reasoning was that of Thorndike in (1917). As cited in (www.ciil-ebooks.net), the first factual study of comprehension in reading was made by Davis (1941). A factual study means that an attempt has been made to separate the component parts of reading in order to discover what the statistical values are of the various kinds of things one does that helps him to comprehend while reading. One of the factors in reading would be vocabulary. What are the other factors? These are the kinds of questions that a factoral analysis of reading attempts to answer. Davis’ study indicated that reading behavior was related to the psychological aspects of reasoning as well as to the ocular and mechanical. Davis (1941), hypothesized nine variables but found that only five were significant. They are given below:
1. Vocabulary – knowledge of word meanings
2. Verbal reasoning – being able to reason with words.
3. Sensitivity to implications – being able to understand implications, or what a writer implies.
4. Following the structure of passage – to know how it is structured and being able to follow the structure.
5. Recognizing the literary techniques of the writer.
Hall and Robinson in 1945 identified comprehension accuracy, rate of inductive reading, word meaning, rate for reading unrelated facts and chart reading skills. Another team identified only two factors- semantic difficulties, i.e., the difficulty of the sentences, and word difficulty. In 1964, another team attempted factor analysis and they found only two skills that were statistically defensible, i.e., word knowledge and paragraph comprehension.
A team, as late as 1969, reported a study of reading comprehension done in Iowa. This team investigated eight factors as possible ‘building blocks’ in comprehension, but found only four of these to be actually relate
d
to comprehension of reading. They were (1) speed of reading; (2) ability to listen; (3) ability to classify the words, and (4) speed of noting details. A later study also found vocabulary to be very significant, as was ability to note rhyming sounds (www.ciil-ebooks.net).

2.12 Studies carried out on the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension:
Different studies have been done in this area up to now. It is worth mentioning that non of them investigated the relationship between EI and RC alone. In all of them the two variables are studied in relation to some other factors. Helen C. Bryant (March, 2007), investigated the relationship between EI and RC in 10th-, 11th-, and 12th-grade students with learning disabilities in a school in the Wayne County (South East Michigan) School District and found a significant correlation between the total EQ score and reading comprehension (r =0.90). Pishghadam (2009) did a quantitative study to analyze the relationship between EI and Foreign Language Learning; 508 second year students at four universities in Iran were asked to complete the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i). Then, the EQ-i data were matched with the students’ academic records, scores in reading, listening, speaking, and writing. As he concluded total EQ was not found to be associated with reading (r=0.06). Motallebzadeh (Fall 2009), investigated The relationship between emotional intelligence of the Iranian EFL learners and their reading comprehension and structural ability. He did his study over 250 Iranian EFL learners studying at Islamic Azad University and found a strong correlation between EI and RC as (r=0.54). In Abdolrezapour and Tavakoli (March, 2011) ‘s research, “the relationship between emotional intelligence and EFL learners ‘achievement in reading comprehension”, a total of 63 students studying Interchange 2 were asked to participate in their study; The population under the study included the EFL learners who enrolled in a language center in Iran. Based on their data, they suggested that high EI is related to more reading achievement (r=0.66). They believed that subjects’ EI positively correlates with their achievement in reading comprehension. Talebinejad and Rezai Fard (September 2012), did a research on ” the relationship between emotional quotient, socioeconomic status and performance in reading comprehension: a case study of Iranian high school students”, concluded a high correlation between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension, as well (r=0.79). In their research 80 homogenous EFL female students were selected from different high schools in Eghlid with the age range of 14-17.
It was expected that the aimed junior students who passed several courses of reading comprehension in advance answer reading comprehension test better than what they actually did. Although, there was a significant correlation between EI and RC (r=0.29), it was not high enough. It is clear that the result is local not universal.

Chapter three

Methodology

3.1 Introduction
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Reading Comprehension of the junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. Although, gender and age had no roles in this research. This chapter presents the research design, participants, instruments, data collection procedures, and statistical analyses utilized for this study.

3.2 Design
“A descriptive study describes and interprets what is. It is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist, opinion that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are evident, or trends that are developing.” (Best, 2006, p. 118). Therefore as Best believes, descriptive research seeks to find answer to questions through the analysis of the relationships between variables. Based on these considerations, this quantitative research was held at Islamic Azad University

پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع "، an، (http://psychologydictionary.org).، intrapersonal

important differences among individuals (Gottfredson, 1997). Dissatisfaction with traditional IQ tests has led to the development of a number of alternative theories, all of which suggest that intelligence is the result of a number of independent abilities that individually contribute to human performance.
As early as 1920, Thorndike hypothesized that true intelligence was composed of not only an academic component, but also of emotional and social. Social intelligence, according to Thorndike`s view, is “the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls – to act wisely in human relations” (p. 228). It is an ability that “shows itself abundantly in the nursery, on the playground, in barracks and factories and salesrooms, but it eludes the formal standardized conditions of the testing laboratory” (p. 231). Intelligence was considered as a concept devoid of emotion and symposiums on intelligence over the years repeatedly concluded that the first hallmark of intelligence is high-level mental ability such as abstract reasoning (Sternberg 1997). For example, Terman (1921; cited in Sternberg 1997: 339), as a pioneer of IQ tests, states that “an individual is intelligent in proportion as he is able to carry on abstract thinking”. Therefore, intelligence conceptualized as abstract thinking was demonstrated to predict academic success.
In 1967, Guilford presented a view of intelligence as a multifaceted construct composed of one hundred and twenty different types of intelligence. Shanley, Walker and Foley (1971) held that social intelligence was distinct from academic intelligence, but they found little evidence to support social intelligence as a separate construct. While society has traditionally placed a great deal of weight on academic intelligence, Bar-On (1997) argued that emotional and social intelligences were better predictors of success in life. The more recent writings and research of Gardner (1983, 1993, 1999), have added support to the concept of multiple intelligences. Gardner has proposed a model of at least 8 types of intelligence including spatial, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, linguistic and logical-mathematical. He proposed the theory of “multiple intelligences” (Gardner, 1983), arguing that intrapersonal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence should be considered as types of intelligence.
Whereas intrapersonal intelligence involves the examination and knowledge of one’s own feelings, interpersonal intelligence is the ability to read the moods, intentions, and desires of others and potentially to act on his knowledge.
The term emotional quotient (EQ) was first coined by Bar-On (1988) as a counterpart to IQ, that is, cognitive ability. Bar-On thought of EQ as representing a set of social and emotional abilities that help individuals cope with the demands of daily life. Salovey and Mayer (1990) had something different and more restricted in mind when they introduced the term emotional intelligence several years later. For them, EI concerned the way in which an individual processes information about emotion and emotional responses. They identified emotional intelligence as the “ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 189). A comprehensive EI model, they argued, must include some measure of “thinking about feeling,” an aptitude lacked by models that focus on simply perceiving and regulating feelings.
Finally, in 1995 the idea was introduced into the world at large with the publication of Daniel Goleman’s best-seller book “Emotional Intelligence.” Goleman (1995) saw emotional intelligence as an idea or theme that emerged from a large set of research findings on the role of the emotions in human life. These findings pointed to different ways in which competencies such as empathy, learned optimism, and self-control contributed to important outcomes in the family, the workplace and other life arenas. Bar-on (1997) characterizes emotional intelligence as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (p. 14). His mode of emotional intelligence includes five broad areas of skills or competencies: intrapersonal EQ, interpersonal EQ, adaptability EQ, stress management EQ, and general mood EQ (Bar-On, 1997).
So, The concept of emotional intelligence formally developed out of growing emphasis on research on the interaction of emotion and thought in the field of psychology in 1990s (Grewal & Salovey 2006). EQ/EI is about the intelligent use of emotions and utilizing the power or information contained in emotion to make effective decisions (Ciarrochi & Mayer 2007). Although different competing and sometimes conflicting components have been integrated into emotional intelligence, this construct has offered the potential to integrate the reasoning of a person’s cognition and emotion. Recently more attention has been paid to the effect of emotional intelligence on academic success in education (Elias et al. 2003). However, as Brackett and Katulak (2007) state, quite a few studies have been conducted to explore this concept in contexts where English is spoken as a second or foreign Language (ESL/EFL), given the idea that the emotional intelligence serves both internal mechanisms and external environment in the process of language learning (Goleman 2001).
Moreover, in 1983, a theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. This theory which questioned the horizontal approach to intelligence and blew apart the traditional thoughts about monolithic general intelligence, suggested that the traditional notion of intelligence based on intelligence testing was far too limited and should be expanded to include the broad range of human potential in children and adults. In his MI theory, he initially described seven intelligences including intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences which, in part, paved the way for uncovering other intelligences such as emotional intelligence, which is interchangeably known as EI or EQ.
This theory included the following intelligences: linguistic intelligence (word smart), logical-mathematical intelligence (number/reasoning smart), spatial intelligence (picture smart), bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (body smart), musical intelligence (music smart); interpersonal intelligence (people smart), intrapersonal intelligence (self-smart), and naturalist intelligence (nature smart). Gardner (1983, 81), defines intelligence as “the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued with one or more cultural settings”.

2.5.3 Definitions of the 5 main categories of EI and their 15 sub-categories based on Bar-on’s classification (1996):
2.5.3.1 Intra-Personal: “Intrapersonal constructs relate to factors that are within the person” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.1.a Self-regard: “Regard or consideration for oneself; self-respect” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.1.b Emotional self awareness: According to Bar-on, this intrapersonal sub-factor is defined as ” the ability to be aware of and understand our emotions. Emotional self-awareness is the ability to recognize our emotions. It is not only the ability to be aware of our emotions, but also to differentiate between them, to know what we are feeling and why, and to know what caused those feelings. Emotional self-awareness is the foundation stone on which most of the other skills of EI are developed from, so it is a really important competency. It is the only way in which you will begin to understand yourself and change yourself, if it is needed” (http://www.reuvenbaron.org).
2.5.3.1.c Assertiveness: ” A style of communication in which individuals express their feelings and needs directly to the other person whi
le
maintaining respect for others and keeping emotions under control ” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.1.d Independence: ” freedom from the control, influence, support, aid, or the like of others”( Based on the Random House Dictionary, Inc. 2013).
2.5.3.1.e Self-actualization: ” It is the process of striving to actualize one`s potential capacity, abilities and talents. It requires the ability and drive to set and achieve goals, and it is characterized by being involved in and feeling committed to various interests and pursuits. Self-actualization is thought to be a life-long effort leading to an enriched and meaningful life. It is not merely performance but an attempt to do one’s best”(Bar-on, 2006, p.13-25).
2.5.3.2 Inter-Personal: ” of or pertaining to the relations between persons ” (Based on the Random House Dictionary, Inc. 2013).
2.5.3.2.a Empathy: “Empathy does not mean we are motivated to assist a person but we know why they are feeling what they are feeling” ( http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.2.b Social responsibility: ” It is an ethical theory that an entity, it can be an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large” ( http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com).
2.5.3.2.c Inter-Personal relationship: ” It relates to the relations between persons ” (Based on the Random House Dictionary, Inc. 2013).
2.5.3.3 Stress-management: “The activity of controlling and organizing feelings of worry about your work or personal life, that prevents you from relaxing” (from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Advanced Learner’s Dictionary at (http://www.ldoceonline.com).
2.5.3.3.a Stress Tolerance: ” In stressful conditions, a person’s ability to do the task appropriately with minimal anxiety level is known as stress tolerance” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.3.b Impulse control: ” Deferred gratification or delayed gratification is the ability to wait in order to obtain something that one wants. This attribute is known by many names, including impulse control, will power, self control and, in economics, “low” time preference….” (http://en.wikipedia.org).
2.5.3.4 Adaptability: “1.The ability to render adequate feedback up to modified or developing conditions. 2. The potential to adjust or change an individual’s behavior by getting to know diverse circumstances or unique individuals” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.4.a Reality Testing: ” Any means by which an individual is able clearly to assess his or her limitations as they relate to biological, physiological, social or environmental realities” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.4.b Flexibility: ” The ability to adapt to different situations” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
2.5.3.4.c Problem solving: ” It is a mental process that involves discovering, analyzing and solving problems. The ultimate goal of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find a solution that best resolves the issue” (http://psychology.about.com).
2.5.3.5 General mood:” General mood relates to only the main features or parts of something, not the details and mood relates to the way you feel at a particular time” (from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Advanced Learner’s Dictionary at http://www.ldoceonline.com).
2.5.3.5.a Optimism: ” The outlook that things occur for the best and that individual’s hopes or goals will eventually be satisfied” (http://psychology.about.com). “Tendency to look on the more favorable side of events or conditions and to expect the most favorable outcome” (Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2013).
2.5.3.5.b Happiness: ” It is the quality or state of being happy”(Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2013).

2.6 Assessment Tools of

پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع emotions، Emotional، In، p.

o Goleman (2001) emotional intelligence or (EI) refers to the ability to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and others. In the scientific literature, the basic components of the concept of emotional intelligence were elaborated well over a decade ago (Bar-On, 1988; Gardner, 1983; Salovey & Mayer, 1990), with precursors that extend back to the beginning of the 20th century (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). The model of emotional intelligence was first proposed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer (1990). Although the basic definition of emotional intelligence is defined in Salovey and Mayer’s article on Emotional Intelligence (1990, p. 189), another model of emotional intelligence was reported in Reuven Bar-On’s doctoral dissertation in1988.
In 1985, Dr. Reuven Bar-On developed an approach for evaluating general intelligence. After 17 years of research, Dr. Bar-On developed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (Bar-On EQ-i: YV). This inventory is the first scientifically developed and validated measure of Emotional Intelligence that reflects an individual’s ability to cope with daily challenges and helps to predict one’s success in life, including professional and personal pursuits (Abraham, 1999). In 1996, Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version, which measured 5 components and 15 sub-components of EI as follows, was published by the Multi-Health Systems:
1. Intrapersonal: assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, independence, and emotional self-awareness
2. Interpersonal: interpersonal relationships, social responsibility, and empathy
3. Adaptability: problem solving, reality testing, and flexibility
4. Stress Management: impulse control and stress tolerance
5. General Mood: happiness and optimism
Although a comprehensive theory of emotional intelligence was provided by Salovey and Mayer (1990, p. 189), and another pioneering model of emotional intelligence was proposed in the 1980s by Reuven Bar-On (1988), other theorists have proposed variations on the same idea. Goleman has adopted Salovey and Mayer’s model into a version for understanding how these talents matter in the work life.
Goleman’s (1995) adaptation includes the following five basic emotional and social competencies:
1. Self-awareness: knowing what we are feeling at the moment, and using those preferences to guide our decision making; having a realistic assessment of our own abilities and a well-grounded sense of self-confidence.
2. Self-regulation: handling our emotions so that they facilitate rather than interfere with the task at hand; being conscientious and delaying gratification to pursue goals; recovering well from emotional distress.
3. Motivation: using our deepest preferences to move and guide us toward our goals, to help us take initiative and strive to improve, and to persevere in the face of setbacks and frustrations.
4. Empathy: sensing what people are feeling, being able to take their perspective, and cultivating rapport and attunement with a broad diversity of people. Empathy also refers to the identification with the state of another person. It is believed that empathy allows us to “climb out of our own skin and into the skin of another” (Licknoma, 1991, p. 31).
5. Social Skills: handling emotions in relationships well and accurately reading social situations and networks; interacting smoothly; using these skills to persuade and lead, negotiate and settle disputes, for cooperation and teamwork.
In the Goleman (1995) model, a similar expanded definition of emotional intelligence is used, referring to emotional intelligence as a set of learned competencies. Emotional intelligence competence is then defined as “an ability to recognize, understand, and use emotional information about oneself or others that leads to or causes effective or superior performance” (Boyatzis & Sala, 2004, p. 149). A distinction is further made between five main competency clusters (with various sub competencies): self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Given the trait-like nature of the mixed model, some researchers have suggested using terms such as “trait emotional intelligence,” “emotional self-efficacy” (Petrides & Furnham, 2003), or “emotional self-confidence” (Roberts, Schulze, Zeidner, & Matthews, 2005).
Generally, a distinction is made between two conceptualizations of emotional intelligence; namely, an ability emotional intelligence model and a trait emotional intelligence model (e.g., Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2007). The first model conceptualizes emotional intelligence as ability similar to cognitive ability and measures it via performance-based tests. In this paradigm, emotional intelligence is viewed as another legitimate type of intelligence. Therefore, this model is also referred to as emotional cognitive ability or information processing emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is then defined as “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189). As cited in Filip Lievens and David Chan (2009), the higher order construct of emotional intelligence is broken down into four branches. The first branch—emotional identification, perception, and expression—deals with the ability to accurately perceive emotions in others’ verbal and nonverbal behavior. The second branch is emotional facilitation of thought which refers to the ability to use emotions to assist thinking and problem-solving. Third, emotional understanding denotes the ability to analyze feelings, discriminate among emotions, and think about their outcomes. Finally, emotional management deals with abilities related to maintaining or changing emotions. The second model, the trait EQ model, views emotional intelligence as similar to personality and assesses it via self-report. In this model, emotional intelligence is defined as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (Bar-On, 1997, p. 16). So, the question of why some people become successful while others fail despite their natural gifts, abilities, and talents has provoked inquiries into those qualities that determine success (Richburge & Fletcher, 2002).
Goleman reports that IQ contributes only about 20% to success in life and other forces contribute the rest. In the 1960s, psychologist John Block used the concept “ego resilience” rather than emotional intelligence, but notes that the main components of emotional intelligence include emotional self-regulation, adaptive impulse control, a sense of self-efficacy, and social intelligence. Using these main elements to measure emotional intelligence is equivalent to using SAT scores to measure intelligence (Goleman, 1995, p. 135).
According to Byron Stock & Associates (1999), emotional intelligence does not mean being “soft”; rather, it means being intelligent about one’s emotions. He believes that emotional intelligence reflects different ways of being “smart.” Stock and Associates (1999) suggest that emotional intelligence is one’s ability to acquire and apply knowledge from his emotions and the emotions of others in order to be more successful and lead a more fulfilling life. Hence, emotional intelligence refers to the capacity to recognize one’s own feelings and those of others to motivate oneself, and to manage emotions well in our relationships. It explains abilities that are distinct from, but complementary to, academic intelligence, the purely cognitive capacities measured by IQ. In fact, many people who are smart, but lack emotional intelligence, end up working for people who have lower IQ’s than they but who excel in emotional intelligence skills (Goleman, 1998a).
Re
ce
nt meta-analytic research (Van Rooy, Viswesvaran, & Pluta, 2005) has demonstrated that Emotional intelligence measures based on the mixed model overlapped considerably with personality trait scores but not with cognitive ability. Conversely, emotional intelligence measures developed according to an emotional intelligence ability model correlated more with cognitive ability and less with personality. Other research has clarified that ability model measures correlate especially with verbal (crystallized) ability, with correlations typically between .30 and .40 (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). So, some have posited that the term “emotional intelligence” should be replaced by the term “emotional knowledge” (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004). In addition to the construct validity of emotional intelligence, the criterion-related validity has also been scrutinized. Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) conducted a meta-analysis of emotional intelligence measures (collapsing both models) for predicting performance. Their analysis of 59 independent empirical samples obtained a mean corrected correlation of .23. The validity of emotional intelligence measures was .24, .10, and .24 for predicting performance in occupational, academic, and life settings, respectively. However, a caveat is in order when interpreting the results of this meta-analysis as it included only a small number of studies using ability-based emotional intelligence instruments and a sizable number of studies using self-report measures of performance. As Zarafshan and Ardeshiri (August 2012) cited “emotional intelligence refers to the capacities to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and in others. EI can be as much powerful, and at times, more powerful than IQ in predicting success in various life challenges (Goleman, 1995). “In distinguishing successful people within a job category or profession, EI emerges as a stronger predictor than IQ of who, for instance, will become a star, salesperson, team head, or a top-rank leader,” (Goleman, 1995, p. 34) . Goleman states IQ can sort people before they start a career; it determines which fields or professions they can hold. To learn which individuals raise to the top or which individuals fail, however, IQ ‘short circuit’ and EI proves to be stronger predictor of success (Goleman, 1998, 2001).
As it is implied, generally, emotional intelligence manages your behavior, moving smoothly through social situations, and makes critical choices in the life. There are four emotional intelligence skills that are grouped under two primary competencies: personal competence and social competence.

Emotional intelligence is made up of four core skills as follows (2012 EmotionalIntelligence.net):

• Self-Awareness is how accurately you can identify your emotions in the moment and understand your tendencies across time and situation.
• Self-Management is how you use awareness of your emotions to create the behavior that you want.
• Social Awareness is how well you read the emotions of other people.
• Relationship Management is how you use the first three emotional intelligence skills to manage your interactions with other people.
As the bellow graph shows, Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Intelligence (IQ), and Personality are not connected (2012 EmotionalIntelligence.net):

“The above three concepts do not go together in any meaningful way. Emotional intelligence explains a fundamental element of your behavior that is unique from your intellect. In fact, you cannot determine someone’s IQ based on their EQ and vice versa. Intelligence is how quickly you absorb new information and it does not change throughout your life. Emotional intelligence is unique because it is a flexible skill that you can improve with practice. Therefore, anyone can develop a high degree of emotional intelligence” (2012 EmotionalIntelligence.net).

پایان نامه ارشد با موضوع reading، Emotional، an، In

er publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.
• 1985 – Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, and tuning in/coming out/letting go).”
• 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term “emotional quotient.” It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis.
• 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, “Emotional Intelligence,” in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
• 1995 – The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.
To comprehend the ideas in the material is the main goal of reading. Thus, without comprehension, reading would be empty and meaningless. Reading comprehension is very crucial to the success of individuals during their education and beyond. To be successful in education, in work and even in hobbies, people must be able to understand the text that is ever present in the environment. Theories of text comprehension contend that as readers process text, they form a mental representation of the text (van den Broek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1998; Graesser, Singer & Trabasso, 1994). This mental representation includes information relaing to the people, settings, actions and events either described explicitly or implied by the text (Garnham, 1996). When we are reading a text, we are unable to compute all the information presented to us, mainly because of processing limitations. We therefore construct a model of the situation, what can be referred to as a state of the world (Garnham & Oakhill, 1994), based on some elements presented to us and based on information stored in our long-term memory.
As Vygotsky (1978) suggests, reading is a mode of communication, and it is a social mediated language-learning activity. As a result, reading comprehension involves emotional processing and is essential to life success.
Souvignier & Moklesgerami (2006) defined Reading comprehension as one`s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use.
In the process of reading comprehension, readers use previous knowledge to handle the text and create new knowledge. The more knowledge a person brings to his or her reading, the more he or she will understand the text (Brandao & Oakhill, 2005; Guterman, 2003). Others say that good reading comprehension requires the reader to be active, and to be able to evaluate the text, preview the text, make predictions, make decisions during reading, review for deeper meaning, find inconsistencies, and evaluate his or her own understanding (Houtveen & van de Grift, 2006; Lau, 2006; Lau & Chan, 2003).

1.3 Statement of the problem
As Gardner (2006) states, in order to understand the complexity of language learning process, attention should be attached to internal mechanisms and social interpersonal interaction involved in this process. Therefore, emotional intelligence can be a great help since, as Coleman (2001) says, it not only serves as an international mechanism, but also interlocks with the external environment. Although variety factors are involved in comprehending a text, it seems that intelligence is an integral part of it. .But, what matter is that we most believe good comprehension of a text is mainly relates to the one`s previous knowledge and experiences not his/her intelligence. The issue is that whether intelligence is an abstract and passive factor in comprehending of a text or really a vital one. Therefore in this study, the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension is supposed to be investigated to clarify the underlying intelligence areas related to reading comprehension.

1.4 Significance of the study
The result of this study will be useful for both teachers and learners. In other words, if the obtained results declare that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension, the teachers and learners can deal with all points and matters that are crucial to improve their intelligence and comprehension. If not, because reading comprehension is a complex process in itself and we should not forget about the skills on which it depends, it will be concluded that having good comprehension is only as the result of one`s previous knowledge, experience and his/her familiarity with related strategies not having high intelligence. Therefore, the present research will consider this relation in order to help students to improve their comprehension of the text by being aware of the importance and power of their intelligence.

1.5 Objective of the study
Emotional intelligence is thought to be one of the factors affecting reading
comprehension. The objective of this research is to find whether there is any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension or not.

1.6 Research questions and hypotheses
1) Is there any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension?
H0 1: There is no relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension.

1.7 Limitations and delimitations of the study
As all the studies have some limitations and delimitations, my study had its own as well, such as the number and gender of the participants and even their honesty in answering to the emotional intelligence test.

1.8 Definitions of key terms
1.8.1 Emotion: World Book Dictionary (1979) defines emotion as “a strong feeling of any kind. Hate, fear, excitement, anger, love, joy, and grief are emotions” (p. 690).

1.8.2 Intelligence: The ability to learn and know; quickness of understanding; intellect; mind (World Book Dictionary, 1979).

1.8.3 Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence is about intelligent use of emotions and utilizing the power or information contained in emotion to make effective decisions (Ciarrochi & Mayer, 2007). The EQ concept argues that Intelligence Quotient (IQ), or conventional intelligence, is too narrow and that there are wider areas of emotional intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are.
Salovey and Mayer (1990) had something different and more restricted in mind when they introduced the term emotional intelligence several years later. For them, EI concerned the way in which an individual processes information about emotion and emotional responses. They identified emotional intelligence as the “ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 189).
Goleman (1995) has defined emotional intelligence as including “abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustration, to control impulses and delay gratification; to regulate one’s moods and keep distress from swapping the ability to think; to emphasize and to hope” (p. 34).
Golman (2001) defined Emotional intelligence as the ability to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and others. “It is the ability to monitor one`s own and other`s feelings, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide ones thinking and actions”(Salovey & Mayer, 1990, pp. 185-211).
Serrat (2009) sees the emotional intelligence as an important factor in human resources in terms of “planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service,
a
nd even more” (p. 50).
Emotional intelligence is described as having the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 186). In the 2000 edition of the Handbook of Intelligence emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in the self and others. (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000, p. 396; see also Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Emotional intelligence is described as that dimension of intelligence responsible for our ability to manage ourselves and our relationships with others (Lynn, 2002, p. 2).

1.8.4 Emotional quotient: It is an approach to evaluate general emotional intelligence (Bar-On, 1997).

1.8.5 Reading: According to Kim and Anderson (2011, p. 30), “reading is essential for successfully completing all college-level courses. In other words, college students who are more proficient readers are most likely to experience more success in their courses”.
Chastain (1988) defines reading as a receptive decoding language process. In the mean time, Nuttall (1996) believes that the view of reading is fundamentally related to meaning, particularly with the transfer of meaning from mind to mind i.e., the transfer of a message from writer to reader.

1.8.6 Reading Comprehension: Theories of text comprehension contend that as readers process text, they form a mental representation of the text (van denBroek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1998; Graesser, Singer & Trabasso, 1994).
Comprehension is a highly complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between the reader and the text to create meaning (National Reading Panel, 2000). In other words, comprehension doesn’t just happen; it requires effort. Readers must intentionally and purposefully work to create meaning from what they read.
As Rahmani & Sadeghi, (2011) defined, reading comprehension is commonly known as an interactive mental process between a reader’s linguistic knowledge, knowledge of the world, and knowledge about a given topic.
Souvignier & Moklesgerami, (2006) believe that reading comprehension can be defined as one’s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use.

Chapter two

Review of the Related Literature

2.1 Introduction
Emotional intelligence is thought to play a critical role in determining one`s success in life (Goleman, 1995).
Reading comprehension can be defined as one`s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use (Souvignier & Moklesgerami, 2006).
This chapter is going to discuss both the concepts of Emotional Intelligence and Reading comprehension first separately and then in relation to each other based on the data gathered from different articles in this area.

2.2 Emotional Intelligence
2.2.1 A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence
Since the mid-1990s, emotional intelligence has received the greatest attention in practitioner and academic literatures. Emotional Intelligence (EI), a concept which is rooted in the theory of social intelligence, is defined in different ways. Although, many have regarded the concept of emotional intelligence as new, its historical roots are well embedded in psychological thought over the past century.
As Goleman (1995) proposes emotional intelligence plays a critical role in determining one`s success in life. At the most general level according to