The following tables show a summary of the most widely used assessment tools of EI.
EIQ (Dulewicz & Higgs)
Developed in 1999 at Henley Management College in the UK. The Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire offers both self-report and 360 questionnaires, with the latter enabling an all-round assessment of an individual’s performance from peers, colleagues and managers.
Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale
The MEIS is a test of ability rather than a self-report measure. The test-taker performs a series of tasks that are designed to assess the person’s ability to perceive, identify, understand, and work with emotion. There is very little for predictive validity in work situations.
MSCEIT® “Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test”
The only ability measure of EQ, the MSCEIT requires you to actually use your abilities in taking the test with questions where you look at faces, for example, and identify what emotions are present. It helps you understand the actual intelligence behind emotions: Perceiving, using, understanding, and managing feelings.
SEI™, Six Seconds Emotional Intelligence Test
Focused on self-development, the SEI is the only test based on Six Seconds’ EQ-in-action model: Know Yourself, Choose Yourself, and Give Yourself. The test measures 8 fundamental skills in these three areas. Report comes with over 20 pages of interpretation and development suggestions.
OVS, Organizational Vital Signs™ by Six Seconds
Organizational Vital Signs is an organizational climate assessment that gives a clear picture of how people are relating to each other and the workplace. Unlike the other tests, OVS is designed to assess a group or an organization to show the context in which individuals perform. The test measures six factors: Trust, Collaboration, Accountability, Leadership, Alignment, and Adaptability. These factors statistically predict over 50% of productivity + customer service + retention.
EQ Map® by Essi Systems
With a much broader perspective, the EQ Map helps people put emotional intelligence into a workplace context. The Map is self-scored, so you can do it completely on your own; it has questions along the lines of, “How well do you recognize emotions in people?” The 14 main scales include emotional awareness, emotional expression, resilience, outlook, trust, and personal power. It also has four outcome scales to show the benefit of increasing the first 14. The EQ Map includes an interpretation guide booklet.
EQ-i® by Reuven BarOn
This self-report instrument was designed to assess those personal qualities that enabled some people to possess better “emotional well-being” than others. The EQ-I has been used to assess thousands of individuals, and its reliability and validity is well documented. Less is known about its predictive validity in work situations
Emotional Intelligence Appraisal® by Talent Smart
There are 3 versions of this test. All use the Daniel Goleman 4-quadrant model: Self-awareness, Other-awareness, Self-management, Relationship-management. All take about 7 minutes to complete, and all come with 6 months of e-learning and a valuable goal-tracking reminder system.
ECI® (Emotional Competence Inventory) by Hay McBer
The ECI is a 360 degree appraisal tool where people who know the individual rate him or her on 20 competencies that are believed to be linked to emotional intelligence.
2.7 Reading comprehension
2.7.1 A Brief History of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension refers to the ability to understand individual words, phrases and clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and larger units of text (Vaughn et al., 2006). Reading comprehension is also described as the process of constructing meaning through dynamic interaction among the reader, the text, and the context of the reading situation (Pathways to the 21st Century Learning, 2001). In fact, reading was regarded as getting the main idea, identifying key details, making inferences, and interpreting meaning. The main purpose for reading is to comprehend the ideas within the material. Without comprehension, reading would be useless and meaningless. Recently reading comprehension has been redefined. It is now believed that reading comprehension is the act of constructing meaning from a text rather than merely pronouncing words on a page. As it is believed by Cook (1989) no two people will have exactly the same comprehension of a text and because no two individuals will most likely read under the same conditions, four conditions are thought to impact reading:
(a) What the reader brings to the reading situation,
(b) The characteristics of the written text,
(c) The learning context that defines the task and purpose of the reader,
(d) The strategies consciously applied by the reader to obtain meaning.
In order to be successful in reading and learning, students must be able to read with understanding and with comprehension. Adewole (2001) asserts that the aim of any reading program is to lay a strong foundation that can benefit pupils throughout their lives in academic pursuits. Adigun and Oyelude (2003) observe that skill in reading will not only assist pupils in organizing their thoughts and jotting down important facts while reading, but also equip them to comprehend entire texts. Reading is a crucial form of communication through which we get most of the information required in teaching and learning situations and in everyday life. We learn to read by reading, not through drill and practice, but by free volition, and in this way learners become readers (Krashen, 1993). Reading is the recognition of printed or written symbols, which has been described as a process of translating alphabetical symbols into a form of language from which the native speaker has already derived the meaning. According to Lawal (1996), readers use the symbols to guide the recovery of information from their repertoires and subsequently use this information to construct interpretations of the message. Adewole (2001) describes “critical reading skill,” which students need to read, explore, and appreciate a literary text effectively. The ability to read is a crucial skill for information retrieval (Dike, 2006). Oyetunde and Unoh (1986) list impediments to positive reading habits and attitude. These includes lack of materials, poor preparation of teachers, lack of interest, poor libraries or none at all, home background, and lack of adult readers as models. Ojo (1993) understood that the major causes of students’ poor performance in English and other school subjects is their inability to read effectively, which, in turn, is largely is due to the attitude of learners toward reading. Teachers must take responsibility for solving these problems, but Folaranmi (2007) believes that it is the government’s responsibility to involve teachers in working out effective ways of making the teaching profession viable for serving teachers and attracting to incoming ones, in order to address the problem of student poor reading culture. Adekoya and Arua (1997) believe that “many bilingual students fail to comprehend what they read in the school situation because they lack the vital firsthand experience necessary to widen their knowledge and general information of their culture which are not included in the school text.” Akinbade (2007) states that a good environment is necessary to promote effective learning in primary schools. Oyerokun (1993) emphasizes the need to use appropriate techniques and materials in teaching reading. She further states that in order to achieve this, the school, teacher, and parents should work together to ensure improvement in reading performance. Bond and Tinker (1973) also share the same view as Onibokun, maintaining that school, students, teachers, and paren
ts should work to improve English language reading skill. However, it is believed that there is much more to it than that. Some say that reading comprehension requires readers to use a posteriori knowledge to navigate the text and create new knowledge, and that the more knowledge a person brings to his or her reading, the more he or she will understand the text (Brandao & Oakhill, 2005; Guterman, 2003). Others say that good reading comprehension requires an active reader, who can evaluate the text, preview the text, make predictions, make decisions during reading, review for deeper meaning, find inconsistencies, evaluates his or her own understanding while reading, use prior knowledge, and monitor understanding. Researchers have also broken these very important skills into processes that happen before, during and after reading (Aarnoutse & Schellings, 2003; de Jager et al., 2004; Houtveen & van de Grift, 2007). According to Houtveen and van de Grift (2007), good comprehenders do many things before even starting to read, including thinking about why they are reading the text, drawing upon previous knowledge, scanning the structural elements of the text, and making predictions about what the text will be like. During reading, they say, those whose comprehension is good continually check for understanding of what they are reading, and are flexible in dealing with changes in the material; they also can identify important ideas, and much more. After reading, they can reflect on their knowledge to successfully produce information when teachers check for understanding, and can use the knowledge gained from their reading for other activities. Educators want students to read information, make critical decisions about it, form their own opinions and respond intelligently (D’Archangelo, 2002). Therefore, a reading skill is a helpful tool that a student practices in order to improve reading comprehension (Hollas, 2002).
Houtveen and van de Grift (2007) also outline the teacher`s role in helping students become people with good comprehension. For better reading comprehension, there are some steps that teachers should take which include first describing reading strategies to students including what each strategy entails, when and how to use particular strategies, and then modeling the use of strategies in front of students. Next, students must be able to use the strategies together, followed by the instructor`s guidance. With this practice, students should eventually be able to use the strategies independently.
According to Van Etten and Van Etten (1976), “the components of reading comprehension include the following:
(a) Memory -the pupil recalls or recognizes information;
(b) Translation -the student changes information into a different symbol form or language;
(c) Interpretation -the pupil discovers relationships between facts, generalization, definitions, values, and skills;
(d) Application -the student solves lifelike problem requiring identification of the issue and the selection and use of appropriate generalizations and skills;
(e) Analysis -the student solves a problem through his conscious knowledge of the parts of the communication;
(f) Synthesis -the student solves a problem that requires original, creative thinking;
(g) Evaluation -the student makes a judgment of good or bad, or right or wrong, according to designated standards, “(p. 254).
“Students who read poorly often have several problems in addition to poor reading that stand in the way of their school achievement” (Gaskins, 1984, p. 467).
Vaughn et al. (2006, p. 132) suggest that “students who struggle to read may encounter difficulty in:
(a) Decoding words, including structural analysis;
(b) Reading text with adequate speed and accuracy (fluency);
(c) Understanding the meaning of words;
(d) Relating content to prior knowledge;
(e) Applying comprehension strategies;
( f) Monitoring