important differences among individuals (Gottfredson, 1997). Dissatisfaction with traditional IQ tests has led to the development of a number of alternative theories, all of which suggest that intelligence is the result of a number of independent abilities that individually contribute to human performance.
As early as 1920, Thorndike hypothesized that true intelligence was composed of not only an academic component, but also of emotional and social. Social intelligence, according to Thorndike`s view, is “the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls – to act wisely in human relations” (p. 228). It is an ability that “shows itself abundantly in the nursery, on the playground, in barracks and factories and salesrooms, but it eludes the formal standardized conditions of the testing laboratory” (p. 231). Intelligence was considered as a concept devoid of emotion and symposiums on intelligence over the years repeatedly concluded that the first hallmark of intelligence is high-level mental ability such as abstract reasoning (Sternberg 1997). For example, Terman (1921; cited in Sternberg 1997: 339), as a pioneer of IQ tests, states that “an individual is intelligent in proportion as he is able to carry on abstract thinking”. Therefore, intelligence conceptualized as abstract thinking was demonstrated to predict academic success.
In 1967, Guilford presented a view of intelligence as a multifaceted construct composed of one hundred and twenty different types of intelligence. Shanley, Walker and Foley (1971) held that social intelligence was distinct from academic intelligence, but they found little evidence to support social intelligence as a separate construct. While society has traditionally placed a great deal of weight on academic intelligence, Bar-On (1997) argued that emotional and social intelligences were better predictors of success in life. The more recent writings and research of Gardner (1983, 1993, 1999), have added support to the concept of multiple intelligences. Gardner has proposed a model of at least 8 types of intelligence including spatial, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, linguistic and logical-mathematical. He proposed the theory of “multiple intelligences” (Gardner, 1983), arguing that intrapersonal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence should be considered as types of intelligence.
Whereas intrapersonal intelligence involves the examination and knowledge of one’s own feelings, interpersonal intelligence is the ability to read the moods, intentions, and desires of others and potentially to act on his knowledge.
The term emotional quotient (EQ) was first coined by Bar-On (1988) as a counterpart to IQ, that is, cognitive ability. Bar-On thought of EQ as representing a set of social and emotional abilities that help individuals cope with the demands of daily life. Salovey and Mayer (1990) had something different and more restricted in mind when they introduced the term emotional intelligence several years later. For them, EI concerned the way in which an individual processes information about emotion and emotional responses. They identified emotional intelligence as the “ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 189). A comprehensive EI model, they argued, must include some measure of “thinking about feeling,” an aptitude lacked by models that focus on simply perceiving and regulating feelings.
Finally, in 1995 the idea was introduced into the world at large with the publication of Daniel Goleman’s best-seller book “Emotional Intelligence.” Goleman (1995) saw emotional intelligence as an idea or theme that emerged from a large set of research findings on the role of the emotions in human life. These findings pointed to different ways in which competencies such as empathy, learned optimism, and self-control contributed to important outcomes in the family, the workplace and other life arenas. Bar-on (1997) characterizes emotional intelligence as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (p. 14). His mode of emotional intelligence includes five broad areas of skills or competencies: intrapersonal EQ, interpersonal EQ, adaptability EQ, stress management EQ, and general mood EQ (Bar-On, 1997).
So, The concept of emotional intelligence formally developed out of growing emphasis on research on the interaction of emotion and thought in the field of psychology in 1990s (Grewal & Salovey 2006). EQ/EI is about the intelligent use of emotions and utilizing the power or information contained in emotion to make effective decisions (Ciarrochi & Mayer 2007). Although different competing and sometimes conflicting components have been integrated into emotional intelligence, this construct has offered the potential to integrate the reasoning of a person’s cognition and emotion. Recently more attention has been paid to the effect of emotional intelligence on academic success in education (Elias et al. 2003). However, as Brackett and Katulak (2007) state, quite a few studies have been conducted to explore this concept in contexts where English is spoken as a second or foreign Language (ESL/EFL), given the idea that the emotional intelligence serves both internal mechanisms and external environment in the process of language learning (Goleman 2001).
Moreover, in 1983, a theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. This theory which questioned the horizontal approach to intelligence and blew apart the traditional thoughts about monolithic general intelligence, suggested that the traditional notion of intelligence based on intelligence testing was far too limited and should be expanded to include the broad range of human potential in children and adults. In his MI theory, he initially described seven intelligences including intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences which, in part, paved the way for uncovering other intelligences such as emotional intelligence, which is interchangeably known as EI or EQ.
This theory included the following intelligences: linguistic intelligence (word smart), logical-mathematical intelligence (number/reasoning smart), spatial intelligence (picture smart), bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (body smart), musical intelligence (music smart); interpersonal intelligence (people smart), intrapersonal intelligence (self-smart), and naturalist intelligence (nature smart). Gardner (1983, 81), defines intelligence as “the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued with one or more cultural settings”.
2.5.3 Definitions of the 5 main categories of EI and their 15 sub-categories based on Bar-on’s classification (1996):
18.104.22.168 Intra-Personal: “Intrapersonal constructs relate to factors that are within the person” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
22.214.171.124.a Self-regard: “Regard or consideration for oneself; self-respect” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
126.96.36.199.b Emotional self awareness: According to Bar-on, this intrapersonal sub-factor is defined as ” the ability to be aware of and understand our emotions. Emotional self-awareness is the ability to recognize our emotions. It is not only the ability to be aware of our emotions, but also to differentiate between them, to know what we are feeling and why, and to know what caused those feelings. Emotional self-awareness is the foundation stone on which most of the other skills of EI are developed from, so it is a really important competency. It is the only way in which you will begin to understand yourself and change yourself, if it is needed” (http://www.reuvenbaron.org).
188.8.131.52.c Assertiveness: ” A style of communication in which individuals express their feelings and needs directly to the other person whi
maintaining respect for others and keeping emotions under control ” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
184.108.40.206.d Independence: ” freedom from the control, influence, support, aid, or the like of others”( Based on the Random House Dictionary, Inc. 2013).
220.127.116.11.e Self-actualization: ” It is the process of striving to actualize one`s potential capacity, abilities and talents. It requires the ability and drive to set and achieve goals, and it is characterized by being involved in and feeling committed to various interests and pursuits. Self-actualization is thought to be a life-long effort leading to an enriched and meaningful life. It is not merely performance but an attempt to do one’s best”(Bar-on, 2006, p.13-25).
18.104.22.168 Inter-Personal: ” of or pertaining to the relations between persons ” (Based on the Random House Dictionary, Inc. 2013).
22.214.171.124.a Empathy: “Empathy does not mean we are motivated to assist a person but we know why they are feeling what they are feeling” ( http://psychologydictionary.org).
126.96.36.199.b Social responsibility: ” It is an ethical theory that an entity, it can be an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large” ( http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com).
188.8.131.52.c Inter-Personal relationship: ” It relates to the relations between persons ” (Based on the Random House Dictionary, Inc. 2013).
184.108.40.206 Stress-management: “The activity of controlling and organizing feelings of worry about your work or personal life, that prevents you from relaxing” (from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Advanced Learner’s Dictionary at (http://www.ldoceonline.com).
220.127.116.11.a Stress Tolerance: ” In stressful conditions, a person’s ability to do the task appropriately with minimal anxiety level is known as stress tolerance” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
18.104.22.168.b Impulse control: ” Deferred gratification or delayed gratification is the ability to wait in order to obtain something that one wants. This attribute is known by many names, including impulse control, will power, self control and, in economics, “low” time preference….” (http://en.wikipedia.org).
22.214.171.124 Adaptability: “1.The ability to render adequate feedback up to modified or developing conditions. 2. The potential to adjust or change an individual’s behavior by getting to know diverse circumstances or unique individuals” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
126.96.36.199.a Reality Testing: ” Any means by which an individual is able clearly to assess his or her limitations as they relate to biological, physiological, social or environmental realities” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
188.8.131.52.b Flexibility: ” The ability to adapt to different situations” (http://psychologydictionary.org).
184.108.40.206.c Problem solving: ” It is a mental process that involves discovering, analyzing and solving problems. The ultimate goal of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find a solution that best resolves the issue” (http://psychology.about.com).
220.127.116.11 General mood:” General mood relates to only the main features or parts of something, not the details and mood relates to the way you feel at a particular time” (from the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Advanced Learner’s Dictionary at http://www.ldoceonline.com).
18.104.22.168.a Optimism: ” The outlook that things occur for the best and that individual’s hopes or goals will eventually be satisfied” (http://psychology.about.com). “Tendency to look on the more favorable side of events or conditions and to expect the most favorable outcome” (Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2013).
22.214.171.124.b Happiness: ” It is the quality or state of being happy”(Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2013).
2.6 Assessment Tools of