of Bandar Abbas. A co-relational research design was employed for this study. Test data were collected, analyzed, and interpreted. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was utilized to test the null hypothesis of this study. It was used to determine the strength of the relationship between the variables (Bluman, 1998, p. 474).

3.3 Participants

The participants in this study were 60 junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. The participants were of unequal proportion of male and female who were classmates. It is worth mentioning gender and age of them had no roles in this research.

3.4 Instruments

In this study two instruments were used in order to collect the data. The first one was the short form of Bar-on `s EQ-i questionnaire that included 90 questions. The second one was a reading comprehension test consisted of 4 passages and 30 questions (Longman, Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test) (Phillips, 2003).

The test of EI consisted of 90 likert-type items was used to investigate its effect on the comprehension abilities of the participants (Appendix I). The test of reading comprehension was designed to measure text comprehension abilities of junior students who passed several courses of reading comprehension in advanced (Appendix II).

3.4.1 Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory

Reuven Bar-on is a pioneer and internationally acknowledged expert in emotional intelligence. He has been involved in defining, measuring and applying this concept since 1980. He coined the term “EQ” and created the EQ-i, which is the first and the most popular measure of emotional intelligence to be published. EQ-i is based on over 19 years of research by Dr Reuven Bar-on. It has been tested over 100,000 individuals worldwide. As Rezaee (September, 2012) cited, “the short form of Bar-on`s EI questionnaire consists of 90 items of 5 choices (Likert scale)”, (see Appendix I). It measures 5 major scales and their 15 sub-scales as follows:

Intrapersonal: Self-Regard, Emotional Self Awareness, Assertiveness, Independence, and Self-Actualization.

Interpersonal: Empathy, Social Responsibility, and Interpersonal Relationship.

Stress Management: Stress Tolerance and Impulse Control.

Adaptability: Reality Testing, Flexibility, and Problem Solving.

General Mood Scale: Optimism and Happiness.

So, in order to avoid the haphazard answering of the participants, and also the ease of administration according to the time limitation, the short form of EQ-i in Farsi was used. As Rezaee (September, 2012) cited, ” there are many studies which used Bar-on EQ-i short form, (e.g. Khodaverdian, 2009, Kracher 2009, Mecabe, 2010, Mo & Dainy, 2007, Petersen, 2010, Riffle, 2010, Robitaille, 2007, Zupancic, 2011). The reliability of Bar-on EQ-i short form in Farsi was measured by Samouei et al, (2005) (r=0.93)”. The reliability of the questionnaire in this study is calculated as well, (r=0.90). (See table 3.1)

Table 3.1

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s Alpha

Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items

N of Items

.908

.909

90

3.4.2 Reading Comprehension Test

In order to investigate the level of reading understanding of the participants, a TOEFL reading comprehension test of Longman (Phillips, 2003) was used. It consisted of 4 passages with totally 30 questions, (Appendix II). The test is reliable by referring to the philosophy of TOEFL.

3.5 Data collection procedure

Before conducting the study, specific steps were necessary, including obtaining permission from the professor of the chosen class and also getting collaborative support from him.

To facilitate internal controls, all the participants were tested by one examiner, the researcher, in the same class, and on the same day. The allocated time for the administration of the Bar-On`s test consisted of 90 questions was 50 minutes and for the reading comprehension test with 4 passages and 30 questions 1 hour.

So, in an effort to keep anonymity with the participants, names were not used. After giving oral instructions for the tests and after having provided answers to the participants `questions, the tests were administered one after the other. Two tests were completed on Thursday. The participants were asked to answer the Emotional Intelligence test (EQ) first and then, after a short break they were asked to complete the reading comprehension test. After collecting the data, the researcher analyzed and interpreted the data.

3.6 Data analysis

For finding answer to the research question, the gathered results from the EQ-i test and the reading comprehension test were analyzed based on the Pearson correlation coefficient statistical analysis in order to indicate whether there is a relationship between variables (EI and RC).

Chapter four

Results and Discussion

4.1 Introduction

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. In this chapter, the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of the participants were estimated first generally and second separately by Pearson product correlation formula and then the results of the reading comprehension test of each participant was analyzed according to his/her grade in the Bar-on’s EI test in relation to its 5 main categorizations and its 15 sub-categorizations.

4.2 Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics which include minimum and maximum scores, means, and standard deviation describe the data, data distribution, and data comparison with other similar data. The following parts are supposed to provide the descriptive statistics for the scores of the participants on the emotional intelligence test and reading comprehension test.

4.2.1 Descriptive statistics for the scores of emotional intelligence test

Table 4.1 shows descriptive statistics for the scores of the participants on the emotional intelligence test. The table represents some information about number of the participants, minimum and maximum scores, mean and standard deviation.

Table 4.1

Test

N

Min

Max

Mean

Std. Deviation

EI

60

260

388

325.07

29.818

As the table demonstrates, the minimum score is 260 and the maximum is 388 out of the total score of 450 and the standard deviation that shows the degree of dispersion of scores in a distribution is calculated as 29.81. As Dean Brown (2005) believes, standard deviation is a sort of average of the differences of all scores from the mean. By comparing the standard deviations of different groups we will understand to what extent they are homogenous. As it is shown in the table, standard deviation is small, so it means that the group is homogenous.

4.2.2 Descriptive statistics for the scores of reading comprehension test

Table 4.2 shows the descriptive statistics for the scores of participants on the reading comprehension test.

Table 4.2

Test

N

Min

Max

Mean

Std. Deviation

Reading comprehension

60

3

26

14.85

5.914

According to the data, minimum and maximum scores are 3 and 26, out of the total number of 30, respectively. The mean score is 14.85 and the standard deviation is 5.91.

4.3 Inferential Statistics

In order to answer the question of the present study, the researcher applied the following data analyses.

The research question

4.3.1 Is there any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehe

ns

ion?

To investigate whether there is any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension or not, Pearson correlation coefficient was applied.

First, the correlation between EI and reading comprehension (RC) tests scores was calculated generally (table 4.3).

Table 4.3

Correlations

EI test scores

RC test scores

EI test scores

Pearson Correlation

1

.295*

Sig. (1-tailed)

.011

N

60

60

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

As the result indicates, the correlation coefficient between the two sets of scores proves the presence of a significant relationship between them (r = 0.29). Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a statistically positive relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University, but it is not that much as the researcher expected.

Second, the correlation between all the questions of EI, one by one, with the total scores of RC was calculated in order to identify the most related sub-categories of EI with RC. Tables of these correlations are depicted in (Appendix III) and labeled 4.4, in general.

Third, the correlations between the 5 main categorizations of Bar-on`s EI questionnaire including 1) Intra-personal, 2) Inter-personal, 3) stress-management, 4) Adaptability, and 5) General mode, and reading comprehension are calculated. Tables 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, and 4.9 show these relations clearly.

Table 4.5

Correlations

RC scores

Intrapersonal

Intrapersonal

Pearson Correlation

.192

1

Sig. (1-tailed)

.071

N

60

60

Table 4.6

Correlations

RC scores

Interpersonal

Interpersonal

Pearson Correlation

.158

1

Sig. (1-tailed)

.114

N

60

60

Table 4.7

Correlations

RC scores

Stress management

Stress management

Pearson Correlation

.393**

1

Sig. (1-tailed)

.001

N

60

60

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

Table 4.8

Correlations

RC scores

Adaptability

Adaptability

Pearson Correlation

.197

1

Sig. (1-tailed)

.065

N

60

60

Table 4.9

Correlations

General Mood

RC scores

General Mood

Pearson Correlation

1

.277*

Sig. (1-tailed)

.016

N

60

60

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

Farhadi, Ja`farpur, and Birjandi (1994), said “coefficient of correlation demonstrates the strength of a relationship between two variables. The coefficient of correlation will always have a value between -1 and +1. A value of +1 means perfect positive correlation and corresponds to the situation where all the dots lie exactly on a straight line. A value of -1 means perfect negative correlation. A correlation is considered high when it is close to +1 or -1 and low when it is close to 0. If the correlation of linear correlation is zero, we say that there is no linear correlation” (page 70). Therefore, the tables are representative of correlation between the EI `s 5 main categories and reading comprehension. Intra-Personal has the correlation of (r=0 .19) with reading comprehension (RC), Inter-Personal (r=0.15), Stress-Management (r= 0.39), Adaptability (r= 0.19), and General Mood (r= 0.27). So, they have positive correlation with RC.

The following graph indicates a weak relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension. In this one and those of next pages, VAR00091 and VAR00092 are representative of the scores of EI and RC tests respectively.

Graph 4.1

As it is clear in the following graphs (4.2 &3), there is a big difference between the EI and RC `s mean scores.

Graph 4.2

Graph 4.3

And finally, the frequency graphs of the participants` answers to the 90 items of EI test are provided in (Appendix IV) and all the graphs are labeled as graphs 4.4 in general.

According to the