findings, the analysis of the above graphs in relation to the gathered correlations of them with RC test is as follows:
To clarify the graphs of the frequencies, first of all, the researcher points out to the numbers of the items included in each of the 5 main categories of Bar-on `s EI test. To do that, knowing the sub categories of each main category is necessary:
The first main category is Intra- Personal which consists of:
a) Self-regard, b) emotional self awareness, c) assertiveness, d) independence, e) self- actualization
The second one is Inter- Personal which consists of:
a) Empathy, b) social responsibility, c) inter- personal relationship
The third one is Stress- Management that includes:
a) Stress tolerance, b) impulse control
The forth one is Adaptability that includes:
a) Reality testing, b) flexibility, c) problem solving
And the last category is General Mood which consists of:
a) Optimism, b) happiness
The results of correlation coefficient between these main groups and reading comprehension, as well as frequency graphs, depict the third group (Stress Management) with (r= 0.39) has the most relationship with RC of the participants; Observation of the frequency graphs makes this matter clearer.
Here, the numbers of the questions of EI test related to this category and its sub-categorizations and their correlations which are calculated separately with RC are presented as:
4(r=0.06), 11(r=0.03), 19(r=0.11), 26(r=0.11), 34(r=0.17), 41(r=0.15), 49(r=0.18), 56(r=0.20), 64(r=0.33), 69(r=0.05), 71(r=0.23), 76(r=0.30), 79(r=0.03).
Other main categories and their related questions are mentioned bellow respectively based on the amount of their correlation with RC:
General Mood with (r=0.27):
2(r=0.16), 9(r=0.15), 10(r=0.30), 17(r=0.19), 24(r=0.20), 39(r=0.09), 47(r=0.23), 54(r=0.07), 62(r=0.27), 77(r= -0.02), 84(0.01).
Intra- Personal with (r=0.19):
3(r=0.06), 5(r=0.00), 6(r= -0.09), 15(r= -0.14), 18(r=0.06), 20(r=0.29), 21(r=0.05), 25(r=0.22), 30(r=0.10), 33(r=0.18), 35(r=0.15), 40(r= -0.10), 45(r=0.11), 48(r=0.10), 50(r=0.06), 51(r=0.10), 55(r=0.14), 60(r=0.06), 63(r=0.02), 65(r= -0.06), 66(r=0.21), 70(r=0.04), 72(r=0.17), 75(r=0.15), 78(r=0.07), 80(r=0.16),82(r=0.02), 85(r=0.08), 90(r= -0.08).
Adaptability with (r=0.19):
1(r= -0.11), 7(r=0.20), 12(r=0.20), 16(r= -0.02), 22(r= -0.07), 27(r= -0.15), 31(r=0.18), 36(r= -0.01), 37(r=0.02), 42(r=0.03), 46(r=0.18), 52(r=0.16), 57(r=0.27), 61(r=0.14), 67(r=0.04), 76(r=0.30), 81(r=0.01), 87(r=0.06).
Inter- Personal with (r=0.15):
8(r=0.14), 13(r=0.14), 14(r=0.07), 23(r= -0.04), 28(r=0.09), 29(r=0.02), 32(r=0.08), 38(r=0.13), 43(r=0.05), 44(r=0.06), 53(r=0.23), 58(r=0.03), 59(r=0.12), 68(0.15), 73(0.06), 74(0.01), 83(r=0.02), 88(r= -0.07), 89(r= -0.03).
Regarding the present results, it is understandable that participants` feeling of stress tolerance and impulse control which are sub categories of the third group, are the most related and effective factors on their sense of comprehension, and empathy, social-responsibility and inter-personal relationship which relate to the second main category of Bar-on`s EI, are the least related ones.
The results of the study besides the review of the findings and the related studies in this area are available to be discussed in this part.
Based on the obtained results according to the statistical analyses, it is found that reading comprehension is influenced by emotional intelligence but not to the extent that was expected. The results indicated a positive but weak relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension (r=0.29). Therefore, the findings represent a contradiction between the final conclusion of this study and other studies. Helen C. Bryant (March 2007), indicated a strong relationship between emotional intelligence (EQ total score) and reading comprehension (r=0.90). Pishghadam (2009), found no significant correlations between EI and reading (r=.06). Motallebzadeh (Fall 2009), found the correlation of these two variables as (r= .54), Abdolrezapour and Tavakoli (Mar 2011), suggested that high EI is related to more reading achievement (r=0.66). They believed that subjects’ EI positively correlates with their achievement in reading comprehension. Talebinejad and Rezai Fard (September 2012), also concluded a high correlation between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension (r=0.79).
In this chapter, first of all a brief summary of the study is presented which contains the objectives, methodology and data analysis. Secondly, the obtained results of the study is reviewed and discussed. Then the assessment of the study is investigated, and finally, the implications for further research are given.
5.2 Summary of the study
The goal of the present study was to identify whether there was any relationship between students` emotional intelligence and their abilities in comprehending a reading text or not.
The study was performed with 60 junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. The participants were of unequal proportion of male and female who were classmates. In order to gather the data, gender and age of the participants had no roles in this study. Two kinds of instruments were used to collect the data. The first one was the short form of Bar-on `s EQ-i questionnaire (1996) included 90 questions. The second one was a reading comprehension test consisted of 30 questions (Longman, Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test) (Phillips, 2003).
In order to answer the research question, first of all the minimum, maximum, mean, and standard deviation of the obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Then Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to investigate the relationship between the two variables- EI test scores and RC test scores- in general, and then all the items of EI separately with RC.
In the conclusion part the summarized outcome of the study based on the research question is presented.
In order to find an answer for the research question dealing with investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension, Pearson product correlation was conducted and it statistically revealed that there is a weak relationship between these two variables ( r=0.29), based on the gathered results. The findings indicate that those participants with more stress tolerance and impulse control abilities, answered the reading comprehension test better than others (r=0.39). It means that stress management is the most effective factor on comprehension than other categories of EI. But, feeling of empathy, social responsibility, and inter-personal relationship have the least effect on comprehension (r=0.15). So, it is concluded that inter- personal factor which is the exchange of information, feelings, and meaning among people through verbal and non-verbal messages is not as much effective as the stress management is.
To clarify the amount of the relation between the two variables, EI & RC, the researcher calculated the correlation between all the EI items and RC separately. The bellow results represent only the highest related scores to RC and the lowest related ones in each classification:
In the first category, Intra-Personal with its 5 sub-categories and (r=0.19) in general, the highest correlation with RC relates to the question number 20(r=0.29) which relates to self-actualization, and the lowest one to question number 15(r= -0.14) whi
relates to assertiveness.
In the second category, Inter- Personal with its 3 sub-categories and (r=0.15), question number 53(r=0.23) which relates to inter-personal relationship is the highest correlated factor with RC and question 88(r= -0.07) is the lowest correlated one which deals with social responsibility.
In the third category, Stress Management with its 2 sub-categories and (r= 0.39), question number 64(r=0.33) that relates to stress tolerance is the highest correlated item with RC and question 11(r=0.03) is the lowest related one which deals with impulse control.
In the forth category, Adaptability with its 3 sub-categories and (r=0.19), the most correlated item with RC is question number 76(r=0.30) that relates to problem solving, and the least correlated one is question number 27(r= -0.15) that deals with flexibility.
In the fifth and the last category, General Mood with its 2 sub-categories and (r=0.27), question 62(r=0.27) which relates to happiness is the highest related factor to RC and question number 77(r= -0.02) that also relates to happiness is the lowest correlated one. As the EI test is presented in (Appendix A), in this case, these two questions are representative of two different positive and negative areas according to the meaning of their questions.
Based on the obtained results in general, it is expected that improving the factors of EI with positive meanings which have the highest degree of correlation with reading comprehension can be effective in increasing the participants `abilities of comprehending a text and those with negative meanings and negative correlations, must be reduced if tolerable reading comprehension is expected. So, the achieved conclusion rejected the hypothesis of the study “There is not any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension”. The results indicated that there is a significant but weak relationship between EI & RC.
5.4 Pedagogical Implications
Learners of English as a foreign language should be more familiar with their personality, characteristics, abilities and whatever relates to their success. The findings of the present study might help researchers, learners, and teachers focus more on enhancing reading comprehension and emotional intelligence. So, it can have pedagogical implications for instruction and curriculum development. English instructors are expected to be well familiar with the concept of emotional intelligence as an effective factor of success, and try to raise their own emotional intelligence as well as that of their learners. Furthermore, being informed about the fact that the ability of comprehending a text is improvable make this matter clearer that familiarity with reading strategies is necessary besides knowing and increasing intelligence in the process of learning. The findings can also be helpful to students` awareness of their abilities and their power of learning. Finally, the upshots gained through the present study can help material and syllabus designers see which activities and approaches are the most appropriate ones for improving students` comprehension in relation to their EI.
5.5 Suggestions for further research
Interpretations of the findings of the present study lead to several recommendations for further research.
1. In order to get better results, this study can be carried out by using a bit larger sample.
2. More research is required regarding what factors improve emotional intelligence.
3. More research is needed to see among those factors that improve emotional intelligence, which one has the direct effect on reading comprehension, and how it can be improved.
4. It is necessary for all the learners to know what the reading strategies are and among them which one has the most effect on their comprehending of a text and which one is the most related to their EI.
5. Another area for future research is to investigate how much passing several courses of reading comprehension affect the abilities of learners to achieve high scores in reading comprehension tests.
Aarnoutse, C. & Schellings, G. (2003).